Wednesday, August 6, 2008

How to Grow Soybeans

How to Grow Soybeans
By Tom Morgan
Soybeans are legumes and were derived from the south east Asian annual leguminous plant. Soybeans grow in mild summer climates with temperature ranging from 66 to 88 degrees Fahrenheit. Spring is the
Instructions

Step1
Select seeds with the skin or husk intact to ensure germination.
Step2
Understand seed germination. Germination, which usually takes place in 6 to 14 days, can be done in the ground, in trays or in a peat pot. If using a peat pot, place 1 to 3 seeds in each pot and place the pots in a tray or egg carton. This will allow the seeds to maintain moisture during the germination process. Cover the tray or carton with plastic wrap and place it in a warm, sunny location. Check daily to make sure moisture is maintained. Remove the plastic wrap and discard once germinated plants break through the top of the soil. Maintain moisture, warmth and sun exposure until the seedlings are approximately 1 inch tall.
Step3
Select the soil. Soybeans need a warm, sunny location with moist soil high in nutrients. Consult with your local nursery to ensure optimum results. If soybeans have been grown in a prior season, change the location. Soybeans draw a lot of nutrients from the soil.
Step4
Plant the small soybean plants 1 inch deep and 4 to 6 inches apart in rows 20 to 24 inches apart. Grow in succession for continuous harvest. Add manure and compost prior to planting. Fertilize during growing.
Step5
Harvest in 60 to 100 days. The plants will flower when the soybeans are reaching maturity and almost ready for harvest. The soybean pods will be full size and green when ready for harvesting. Rinse the pods and boil them for approximately 20 minutes. When cooled, squeeze the pods and remove the beans.
http://www.ehow.com/how_2032365_grow-soy-beans.html

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HOW TO: GROW SOYBEANS
The Associated Press
Published Sunday, May 25, 2008
No need to ramble on praising the many health benefits of soybeans, their high-quality protein, their healthful oil and so on. We’ll assume you’re not living in a cave.
Let’s also keep quiet about the gustatory alchemy that has been wrought on this bean, transforming it into tofu and tempeh as well as "meat," milk and ice cream.
However, soybeans deserve special mention in their simplest form: the fresh green bean merely steamed or boiled then popped out of its pod into your mouth.
This vegetable often goes under its Japanese name, edamame. If you want one new vegetable to try in your garden this year, make edamame that vegetable.
GETTING STARTED
Soybeans are bushy, frost-tender plants that you grow just like bush green beans. Make rows a couple of feet apart, or, if you garden in beds, plant a row down either side of a bed. In either case, drop seeds three inches apart into furrows an inch deep.
Green soybeans taste something like a cross between a fresh lima bean and shelling pea - and it’s as easy as those plants, or easier, to grow. Soybeans tolerate hot weather better than peas, which languish in summer heat, and cool weather better than limas, which languish in spring’s coolness. And Mexican bean beetles, which in some years devastate green beans, have little interest in soybeans.
Once you’re smitten by the delectable taste of edamame and want to stretch the harvest season, do so by planting varieties that take different times to mature.
OF NOTE
Soybean plants grow larger than bush green bean plants, so they tend to flop over. If you like your garden to be neat, just put stakes around the edges of the beds, then let the plants lean on one or two courses of string tied to the stakes.
I also must mention animals: Soybeans are dessert to rabbits and deer. If either of these animals are present and can get into your garden, forget about growing soybeans - unless you want to grow them as a trap crop to keep either of these creatures from feeding on other plants.
THE HARVEST
Harvest edamame pods when they are fully plump and still bright green. As with limas and some other beans, edamame must be cooked before they’re fit to eat.
Steam or boil them in their pods for about eight minutes before eating. Cooled pods gladly release their beans when gently squeezed between your fingers. If you harvest more than you can eat fresh, pack excess cooked pods into bags and into your freezer.
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Copyright 2008 Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.
http://www.columbiatribune.com/2008/May/20080525Puls025.asp

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HOW TO GROW SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX var.)
IMPORTANCE 1) Soybeans are perhaps the world's oldest food crop and are one of the
most concentrated and nutritious foods known to man. They rank as one of
the five great protein foods and are often referred to as "the meat that grows
on vines." Dry soybeans contain twice the amount of protein found in meat
and ten times that of milk. Growing soybeans is one of the most economical
ways you can add more protein to your diet.
Soybean is one of the most useful leguminous plants. Viands, snacks, and
desserts are made from the green mature beans. Soybean flour, soybean
sprouts, and fermented products like ”tausi” and soy sauce are prepared
from the dried beans. Soy cheese and tofu are made from soymilk. The oil
from soybeans is used in the manufacture of cooking oil, margarine, salad
dressing and vegetable shortening.
VARIETIES 2) There are several varieties of soybeans grown throughout the country.
For commercial production, the following varieties are recommended: BPI L-
114, CES 434, Clark 63, TK-5, and UPLB-Sy2. For vegetable purposes you
need to plant Kanrich, E.G. Special, or Kahala.
SOILS 3) Soybeans can be grown in nearly all types of soil, but best results will be
obtained from mellow, fertile, sandy or clay loam soil. Soybean seeds do not
germinate well in soil that is too dry or too wet.
CLIMATIC 4) Most varieties mentioned above can be grown throughout the country.
REQUIREMENTS They need plenty of water during the growing period and dry weather during
the stage of ripening of fruits.
LAND 5) Prepare the land thoroughly. Plow the field and then harrow until the soil
PREPARATION is well pulverized.
SEED 6) Be sure that the seeds you are using for planting come from healthy
TREATMENT and disease-free plants. Treat the seeds with fungicide such as Arasan or
Captan to protect them from soil-borne diseases and insect pests.
SEED 7) Like string beans, soybeans can get free nitrogen from the air. To help
INOCULATION them produce their own nitrogen, you need to inoculate the seeds before
planting. (Please read our leaflet "How to Inoculate Leguminous Crops.")
However, you can plant soybeans without inoculating the seeds.
PLANTING 8) Plant your soybeans in rows 75 centimeters apart. Drop 2 to 3 seeds per
hill at a distance of 5 centimeters apart. Sow the seeds at a depth of 2 to 3
centimeters. After germination thin your soybeans to 20 plants per linear
meter.
FERTILI- 9) Soybeans are legumes; therefore, they meet their requirement for
ZATION nitrogen through the root nodules. In the absence of soil analysis, you need
45 kilos of phosphorous and 45 kilos of potassium per hectare. All the
recommended fertilizers should be applied as basal at planting. (Four and
one-half sacks of 0-20-0 plus one and one-half sacks of 0-0-60 will meet the
necessary fertilizer requirements.)
WEEDING AND 10) Soybeans compete poorly with weeds at their early stages of growth.
CULTIVATION One way of eliminating weeds is through cultivation. Cultivation may be
started two weeks after planting and continued when the plants are about
six inches tall. Extra care should be taken during cultivation
so that the
roots of the plants are not injured. Cultivation should stop when the plants
begin to bear flowers.
CONTROL 11) Soybeans are susceptible to insect attack. Insects that considerably
OF PESTS damage soybeans include cutworms, aphids, nematodes and bugs. Control
cutworms by spraying the plants with Basudin 20 EC. You can control bugs
and aphids by spraying the plants with Furadan 3G, Mipcin 50 WP, or
Malathion 57 EC.
CONTROL 12) Bacterial pustule, soybean rust, and soybean mosaic are common
OF DISEASES diseases of soybeans. Selection of seeds from disease-free plants, the use
of resistant varieties, crop rotation, clean culture, and the use of fungicides
are good control measures.
HARVESTING 13) The soybean crop is ready for harvest 120 to 150 days after planting,
depending upon the variety you planted and the season you are growing
them. For general purposes, the crop can be harvested when about 90%
are mature. The plants may be pulled up and tied into small bundles. These
bundles may be set into stacks and threshed as soon as they are dry.
POSTSCRIPT 14) Do not burn the stalks or leaves of the soybeans after harvest. They are
very good fertilizer so just leave them in the field.
It is advisable to plant corn after the soybeans because there will be lots of
nitrogen left in the soil which corn needs for its growth.

http://www.arldf.net/How%20to%20Manual%20Revised.pdf

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Soybean Production
Planting, Growing and Harvesting Soybeans
Growing Edamame
Click to learn more.

When is the best time to plant soybeans?
Typically, beans planted during early May have the best yield potential. However, yield depends on several other factors, too. Growing conditions at planting time will influence the success of seed germination and seedling vigor. Just because the calendar says it's time to plant doesn't guarantee that it's the optimum time to plant soybeans. Soybeans need a minimum soil temperature of 55 to 60o Fahrenheit to germinate. Germination rates increase at warmer temperatures. A seed that's in the soil but cannot rapidly germinate and emerge above the soil surface will have a higher chance of exposure to diseases and damping off.
What is the ideal soil for growing soybeans?
Soybean is a hardy plant and well adapted to a variety of soils and soil conditions. Producing the best quality crop and maximum yields will require top quality soil. Thus, soil is one of the first things to consider when planting a crop. A healthy, fertile, workable soil will actually provide seedlings and growing plants with protection from adverse weather including cold, frost, drought, excess water, and protection from pests and diseases.
Ideal soil for optimum soybean production is a loose, well-drained loam. Many fields have tight, high clay soil that becomes waterlogged when it rains. When the soil dries out, a hard crust surface may form which is a barrier to emerging seedlings. These high clay soils are low in humus and may have imbalance in mineral nutrients. Also, these soils may have few beneficial soil organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, earthworms and others). High clay soils may be amended with peat moss, sphagnum, organic mulch to increase the humus content. Sand may be added to loosen and aerate the soil and allow better drainage.
The advantages of loose, well-aerated soil include (1) movement of air to roots and nitrogen-fixing root nodules, (2) increased water-holding capacity with adequate drainage, (3) reduced erosion, (4) reduced weed populations, (5) maintenance of steady and balanced nutrients to roots and balance pH, and (6) increased potential to protect roots from harmful nematodes, insects pests, and pathogens.
How should the seedbed be prepared?
The ideal seedbed for soybeans should provide moisture and the appropriate temperature warmth for rapid germination and seedling emergence. Soil should remain friable without crusting over when dry. Germination of weed seeds should be delayed or prevented.
Soil moisture (about 50% of the soybean weight) must be sufficient to allow uniform and steady germination rates. If soybeans germinate and grow rapidly, weeds can be shaded out. To reduce or discourage weeds, allow the space between the planted rows to remain covered by residue. Another approach is to prepare the seedbed early, let the weeds germinate, then work the seedbed to kill sprouted weeds before planting.
If soybeans have not been grown in a particular location for three to five years, it is best to inoculate the seed with the proper strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium). Some strains are more effective nitrogen fixers than others. Both seed and soil inoculum are available.
What happens during germination and emergence?
Germination is time after the seed is planted in the soil and before the young seedling emerges above the soil surface. After being planted in the soil, the seed absorbs moisture (called imbibition), changing from less than 13% moisture to about 50% in several hours. After one or two days the first root (called the radical) emerges through the seed coat and begins growing downward to establish the root system.
About five to ten days after planting, the new seedling arches through the soil surface (this is called emergence). The hypocotyl ‘hook’ (the emerging portion just below the cotyledons) begins to lengthen pulling the remainder of the seed upward, and the oval seed leaves (called cotyledons) open up. The cotyledons provide the seedling with a temporary source of food (plant useable nutrients originally stored as the seed was formed). The cotyledons quickly turn green and begin making additional food by photosynthesis. Shortly after the first set of true photosynthetic leaves is formed, the cotyledons drop off.
Seed germination and emergence is a critical period in the life of a soybean because poor emergence due to low temperatures, a soil crust, or seed planted too deeply allows seedling pests or diseases to drastically reduce yield.
What are the optimum planting depth, row width, and plant density for soybeans?
Planting depth. Seeds should be planted deep enough to meet the moisture and temperature requirements for germination. Planting depth may be determined by variety, and some varieties can emerge from greater depths than others (usually the larger seeded varieties). Typical planting depths are 1-1.5 inches, but if soil is low in moisture or sandy, plant 2 inches deep. In cool, moist soil, seed can be planted 1 inch deep. Seldom should soybeans be planted deeper than 2.5 inches.
Plant density/population. Plant population varies depending on row spacing and environmental factors. A final plant population may range from 70,000 to 180,000. Typically, 150,000 is a good target for wide rows and 175,000 for narrow rows. Planting an excessive population may result in increased lodging, but an inadequate or uninformed stand may lead to higher weed populations. At lower populations, plants branch more and lodge less, while at high populations the opposite is true. Pods form higher on the plant in high populations. Weeds are more of a problem in low populations. Populations should be adjusted to reduce lodging and keep pods high on the plant. Populations can be increased when growing determinate, semi-dwarf and non-branching varieties. Additionally, the local soil type, environment, and seed quality can influence plant density.
Row width. An important goal is stand uniformity. In general, if weeds are controlled, soybeans will yield more in narrow rows than in 30 inch rows. Benefits from narrowing the row width will depend on location, soil conditions, weather conditions, planting date, and variety. In northern and central regions of the U.S., soybeans grown in narrow rows yield more than those grown in corn-width rows. In southern areas, there is a similar trend toward narrower rows and higher yield if good weed control is achieved. The ‘rule of thumb’ is that the soybean canopy should completely close (cover and shade the space between rows) by flowering time. The faster the soybean canopy closes, the fewer the number of weeds will grow. In narrow rows, weeds can not be cultivated easily.
Should fungicide treated seed be used?
Seed can be treated with fungicide, but this is not necessary. If the soil temperatures are warm and if the germination rate is over 85%, there is little advantage in using fungicide-treated seed. Lower germination seed may have a 5 to 10% increase in emergence if treated.
What is the growth rate of soybeans?
Soybeans are slower growing than most garden beans, requiring warmer weather and about 3 to 5 months for maturity. In cooler growing regions, the rate of development will be slower. Only the early maturing varieties should be grown in the northern growing regions, and the medium or late maturing varieties grown in the south regions. Planting soybeans can be done about the same time as tomatoes and other long-season, warm-weather crops are put in the garden.
What is the vegetative growth stage?
After the seedling has emerged from the soil the young stem and first leaves begin to rapidly grow upward. The seedling is very tough and frost resistant, but if the terminal bud (growing tip) of the stem is killed, side branches will begin to grow. The first six to eight weeds after emergence are called the vegetative period.
The first two leaves that develop are called unifoliolates, one simple leaf or blade supported by a petiole. The remaining leaves are compound leaves composed of three leaflets and are called trifoliolates. The cotyledons, unifoliolates, and trifoliolates are attached to the main stem at regions called nodes. Later, flowers will develop at the nodes between the petiole and stem, and branches also grow out from node regions. Newly formed upper leaves will shade older, lower leaves which may turn yellow and fall off.
How does the root system develop?
While the stem and leaves grow upward, the root system continues to grow deeper into the soil. Initially, the plant produces a main taproot, but soon after emergence numerous lateral roots branch off to produce a fibrous root system. The deepest roots may reach down five feet or more in loose well drained soil but most of the roots are found in the upper one foot of soil.
The young roots will develop root nodules within a week after emergence. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called Rhizobium, enter the nodules and after ten to fourteen days are able to supply most of the plant's nitrogen needs. In favorable soil conditions, about two dozen nodules will develop on the upper roots of a plant. Healthy nodules are pink or reddish inside.
What happens during the flowering stage?
Typically after six to ten trifoliate leaves have been produced, the soybean plant begins the reproductive period. The flowers are self-pollinated; that is, the flower fertilizes itself, and insects are not required to carry pollen from one flower to another. From 3 to 15 flower buds develop at each node of the stem.
Regarding flower development, soybean plants can be grouped by two main types: determinate and indeterminate. Indeterminate plants continue growing upward at the tip of the stem for several weeks after flowering begins lower on the stem. Upper nodes will not flower until later. Most commercial varieties are indeterminate. They typically grow taller and do well in short growing seasons. Determinate plants complete their growth in height and then produce all the flowers at about the same time. They are usually one-half to two-thirds as tall as indeterminate varieties.
The flowers of soybean are very small (1/4 inch) and are white, pink, or purple. They resemble the flowers of pea or clover, since the soybean is also in the legume plant family. Only about 50 to 80% of the total flowers actually produce pods.
What happens during pod development?
One or two weeks after the first flowers are produced, the first seed pods appear. Most of the pods are set within the following three weeks. Three to four seeds are produced per pod. For the next 30 to 40 days, the plant will store ‘food’ produced by the leaves in the seeds. The seed-filling period is very critical to yield. If environmental conditions are adverse (drought, hail, or disease), seed-fill will be restricted, and yields will be cut severely.

What happens to the seeds as they mature?
The newly formed seeds contain about 90% moisture. As the seeds fill with food, moisture content decreases to about 60 to 65%. When seeds are mature (filled), the moisture content is 45 to 55% and the pods and stems of the plant are yellow or brown. The mature seed itself will also be completely yellow when mature. Some soybean varieties vary in color and may include black, purple, brown, tan, or mottled coloration. As soybean seeds lose moisture they change from large, kidney bean shaped to a smaller and nearly round shape. When dry, the seed contains about 13 to 14% moisture, 40% protein, 21% oil, 34% carbohydrates, and 5% ash.
When should soybean be harvested?
For use as a green vegetable (called edamame), soybean pods should be harvested when the seeds are fully grown but before the pods turn yellow. Most varieties produce beans in usable condition over a period of a week to 10 days. The green beans are difficult to remove from the pods unless the pods are boiled or steamed 4 to 5 minutes, after which they are easily shelled.
What soybean varieties are available?
Many soybean varieties are available. A collection of over 10,000 accessions of soybean seeds is maintained by the USDA. This USDA collection represents the diversity of soybean germplasm including seeds of every color and description including red, green, black, brown, speckled, streaked, large, and small.
Most of soybean varieties grown commercially today are yellow-seeded field varieties used for animal feed and oil production (for food processing and industrial uses). Other varieties can be obtained for special uses: forage and hay (with an abundance of stems and leaves) and human food (large-seeded, various colored varieties).
Are soybean hybrids available?
Because soybean is self-pollinating, commercial hybrid soybean seed is very difficult to produce. Hybrids are produced by soybean seed breeders, but it is a labor intensive and expensive endeavor.
How important is the soybean ‘MATURITY GROUP’?
Plan to plant seed that is appropriate for the length of your growing season. Soybean varieties are grouped into 13 maturity groups, depending on the climate and latitude for which they are adapted. These maturity groups are given numbers, with numbers 000, 00, 0 and 1 being adapted to Canada and the northern United States, and numbers VII, VIII and IX being grown in the southern U.S. (Group X is tropical.)


The 10 maturity groups correspond to horizontal bands across the United States. The soybean varieties that are best adapted to Illinois conditions are from groups II through V. Credit: StratSoy

What nutrients do soybeans need?
Healthy plants need various amounts of nutrients from the soil. Some nutrients are required in large amounts (macronutrients) and some in small amounts (micronutrients). Most soils either have deficiencies or imbalances in the amounts of nutrients available to the plants. Here is a brief summary of the soil nutrients:
Nitrogen (abbreviated N) is a macronutrient and needed by the plant for certain enzyme functions, to make proteins, and as a necessary part of chlorophyll, nucleic acids, vitamins and several other substances. Soybeans can obtain all the nitrogen they need from root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Soybean is a legume and which normally provides itself with adequate nitrogen through a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria of the species Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this symbiotic relationship, carbohydrates and minerals are supplied to the bacteria by the plant, and the bacteria transform nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into ammonium-N for use by the plant. In fact, in tests where fertilizer nitrogen was added to soil, no yield increase occurred, plus the root nodules fixed less nitrogen.
Phosphorus (abbreviated P) is a macronutrient and is needed for general growth and metabolism and for photosynthesis. It carries energy from one part of a cell to another and helps transport food from one part of the plant to another. It also makes up part of cell membranes, nucleic acids and other components. It is necessary for growing really high quality crops. Young seedlings especially need phosphorus. The most efficient and economical way to get phosphorus to crop plants is to maintain soil with adequate levels of humus/organic material and beneficial soil microbes which decompose organic matter to release phosphorus and nutrients to plants.
Potassium (abbreviated K) is a macronutrient and is needed for the plant's enzyme functions, food transport, protein and chlorophyll production, and in regulating water balance, potassium is needed by soybeans in fairly large amounts. Most soils contain large amounts of potassium which are tied up and not available to plants. Soil microbes function to release potassium and other nutrients to plants.
If the soil is very low in potassium, a suggestion for an overall fertilizer source is potassium sulfate (0-0-50). Avoid using fertilizer formulations with chloride because the chloride ion can injure soil microbes as well as soybeans themselves if present in high amounts. Potassium sulfate is more expensive than potassium chloride, but only about one-half as much is needed, and the extra sulfur is usually beneficial.
Calcium (abbreviated Ca) is a macronutrient and is very important for growing high quality soybeans. Calcium is critically important for cell division, root hair growth, enzyme functions, and production of normal cell walls. Calcium improves plant's resistance to disease and gives higher quality, more nutritious crops.
In the soil, calcium and magnesium "compete" for plant absorption. Too much magnesium disrupts the plant's uptake of calcium and potassium, causing low quality crops. Additionally, excess magnesium causes soil to develop hard, crusty conditions. Most soils should have adequate magnesium. In general, soils in the western two-thirds of the U.S. have adequate calcium, while those in the eastern one-third may be deficient.
The best source of calcium is high-calcium lime (calcium carbonate) which has low magnesium and dissolves quickly in water. In alkaline soil, gypsum (calcium sulfate) is the best source of calcium.
Sulfur (abbreviated S) is a macronutrient and is needed to build proteins and assist enzyme functions. Many soils have adequate sulfur because of air pollution from burning high-sulfur coal, but some soils are deficient.
If sulfur is needed for healthy soil, the most readily available source is sulfate-containing fertilizers (calcium sulfate, potassium sulfate). Elemental sulfur (flowers of sulfur) is slow to release and become available.
Micronutrients are required by plants in small amounts and include iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co) and chlorine (Cl). Molybdenum is needed by nitrogen fixing bacteria. In soybeans, the most frequent micronutrient deficiencies are for iron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum. But such deficiencies usually occur in poor, weathered or sandy soils, or in soils that are very alkaline or excessively high in organic matter (mucks and peats). A loamy soil with adequate humus and soil life should not have micronutrient deficiencies. If a micronutrient is deficient in your soil, only that element should be added. Too much of some micronutrients will be toxic.
Nutrient Balance and pH. For healthy crops and high quality yields, nutrients must be available to the plants in the proper amounts and in the right balance. The soil pH (acidity or alkalinity) affects the availability of soil nutrients to plants. The pH scale is expressed as a numerical scale ranging from 0 (most acid) to 14 (most alkaline), with a 7 being neutral. Soybeans grow best in slightly acid soil but can tolerate a wide range of pH (pH 5.8 to 7.0). Soil pH also affects the types and ability of soil organisms to live, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Humus in soil will buffer extremes in pH, and lime can be added to amend soil and counteract acid soil.
http://www.nsrl.uiuc.edu/aboutsoy/production02.html


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This Question Is Answered:

How do you to grow soybeans?

Vicky
21 Feb 2007 13:04 Flag






To grow soybeans, the first aspect that needs to take care of is the climate and the ideal climate to grow it is humid one and the soil for it should be sandy one.

When you are planting the seeds, you will have to plant them about four to six inches apart and each seed should be covered under an inch of soil. When the beans are of full size, you can harvest them but at that time also the pods should green. Once you find that the flowers appear on it, it is ready to get harvested. But one precaution you need to take while harvesting and you must not harvest them when the plants are wet.

It takes about sixty to hundred days for soy to ready for harvesting, so we can say that in that period your soy is ready to enjoy.
http://www.blurtit.com/q971529.html

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ProCrop
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Soybean Planting Depth is Critical
In most cases, soybeans should be planted at a depth of 1 to 11/2 inches and never deeper than 2 inches. The ability of the germinating soybean seedling to push through a crusted soil decreases with deeper planting. Some varieties are especially sensitive to deep planting. In addition, the cooler soil temperatures at greater depths cause slower growth and decreased nutrient availability.
How Two Varieties Differ in Emergence
Percent Emergence at three planting depths
Variety 2 inches 3 inches 4 inches
Amsoy 91 68 6
Clark 79 8 0
Source: Iowa State University
http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/procrop/syb/sybpdc05.htm

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Growing Organic Soybeans on CRP Land
Kathleen Delate, Iowa State University

Determining Your Market
One of the first issues to address is your market. The majority of organic soybeans are going to Japan for use in the “tofu” market, although organic soybeans are also used for tofu and other soy products in the U.S. Edible soybeans are clear-hilum beans (no black mark on the seed). In the IDALS booklet, you will find a list of buyers for organic grains. Check with them first to determine the market prices you can contract with them for the 1998 growing season [contracts based on acreage (regardless of yields) vs. bushels are best; you don’t always know what you’re going to get your first years]. Organic production generally increases as the farm progresses to a more organic situation (improved soil health and balanced insect populations). Average organic soybean yields this year ranged from 25 bu/A to 53 bu/A on the best farms. Prices received in 1999 ranged from $20/bu to $12/bu (see variety selection below) for certified organic beans.

Certified Organic
In order to sell your crop as certified organic, you must be certified by one of the certifying agencies listed on the Organic Information Fact Sheet. Each certifying agency has its own rules, but in general, they will require the following:
• No synthetic fertilizers for three years
• No synthetic pesticides (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides) for three years
• Crop rotations (at least three out of four years); necessary for breaking up weed, insect and disease cycles and maintaining soil fertility
• No synthetic hormones or antibiotics for livestock; organic feeds and pastures required.
Soil fertility in organic systems is maintained through crop rotations (usually soybeans-corn-oats-alfalfa or some variation of this system), applications of manure (manure from non-organic farms must be composted for 6 weeks before application or applied 3 months prior to crop harvest), and/or applications of seaweed, fish emulsion or plant/animal-based products, such as feathermeal. Soybeans add nitrogen to the soil and can be grown without fertilizer in their first year. Subsequent crops must include rotations of grain crops (ideally with nitrogen-adding cover crops) in order to maintain adequate fertility for future soybean crops.

Land Preparation
CRP land must be adequately prepared for organic soybean production. Grasses in the CRP land must be DEAD before planting beans. In order to assure this, one should plow (mold-board plow) in the fall and plant a cover crop of winter rye to help with erosion, weed control (the rye serves as a repellent to many weeds) and provide some organic matter when turned under in the spring.
If planting is not feasible past October, you should still plow to help break up the soil and kill the grasses. It may take 2 to 4 tillage operations to break up the soil and kill the grasses before planting. The ground should be relatively smooth and friable before planting to allow for good seed-to-soil contact. Planting populations (rates/A) will depend on the soybean variety planted, but in general, planting populations are high to provide quicker, in-row shading and weed management. Again, check with your market: some buyers require large beans (e.g., Vintons), others prefer smaller sizes (e.g., Pioneer 9305 or ISU varieties).
Take a soil sample (sample in at least four places per acre) to determine if lime is needed for adjusting your pH. Your local county Extension office can help you with soil sample information and where to send the sample.

Planting and Weed Management
Field cultivators will kill most rye cover crops at the 6 to 8 inch stage, with scratchers dragging behind to bring residue to the surface. If needed, taller rye can be cut with a stalk chopper first. After waiting about a week for the disturbed weed seeds to germinate, a second field cultivation will kill the remaining rye crop. Plant soybean seed at least 1 inch deep when the ground has sufficiently warmed. Some organic farmers believe that adequate ground temperature is critical, and did not plant their soybean crop until June this year. Weed control is the most critical element of organic soybean production. Tillage operations are both an art and science. You should rotary-hoe weeds (in the white-root stage) 3 to 5 days after planting at a slow speed (5 mph) for good penetration; at 7 to 10 days (once beans have emerged), hoe again a little faster (7-9 mph) to enhance surface aggressiveness. You should check the hoe’s penetration, weed kill and crop response to determine optimal speed and depth. Cultivate as quickly as possible at a slow speed the first time. In mid-growing season (when plants are flowering), cultivate again at a faster speed (to throw about 1 inch of soil up around plants). The last cultivation should again be slow (5 mph). Cultivator additions which help many organic farmers include guidance mirrors, disk hillers, metal tent shields, and sweep configurations (e.g., “26-inch one-piece sweeps in 36-inch row spacings”). Details on cultivators and recommended tillage operations can be found in the book, “Steel in the Field” by the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Network (available through ISU for $17).

Harvesting and Subsequent Crops
The harvesting, cleaning and storing of certified organic soybeans is specified by your certification agency. All certified organic beans must be separated from conventional beans, so combines, cleaners and bins must be cleaned between conventional and organic harvests (particularly important if hiring operators/machines). Storage bins must be free of other products and used only for organic beans. It is best to purchase a separate storage bin for your organic beans. With clear-hilum soybeans, clean beans, free of discoloring soil and/or weed seeds, are more important than with soybeans used for feed. An easy technique is to wait until weeds are dead before combining. There are various methods to keep soybeans as clean as possible during harvest (e.g. combines with dual rotating screens, “dirt guards,” smooth plates to prevent soil contamination, etc.). Cleaner beans equal higher prices from buyers. Buyers usually require samples from each load supplied. Clean-out usually averages 10-15%. There is a market for cull beans (splits and small beans) so check with your buyer. There is also a market for “transitional” beans (crops in the three-year transition phase between conventional and organic).
Because rye is not a good cover crop prior to corn, oats may selected instead. At leaf-yellowing, oats can be over-seeded into soybean fields. Freezing weather kills the oats, but stalks remain on the surface to protect the soil from spring erosion. Organic corn currently is priced at a 100% premium over conventional corn, but with the new rules from the USDA Organic Agriculture Program arriving in 1998, the need for organic corn for livestock feed may escalate and drive prices even higher. Rotations will always be key in a properly functioning organic farm to help break up insect, weed and disease cycles, so you should always plan for subsequent crops to organic soybeans.
http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/sustag/resources/soycrp.html

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German tofu company grows soybeans locally to ensure GMO-free
Germany-based Life Food GmbH achieved greater non-GMO assurance over its supply chain by contracting local German farmers to grow organic soybeans for its products.
Based in Freiburg in southwest Germany, Life Food GmbH manufactures 36 tofu products under the Taifun brand name. Products include plain, spiced, and smoked tofu, sausages, cutlets, and snacks. All products are organic, vegan, and non-GMO.
Life Food works with 50 wholesalers who sell the company’s products in health food stores in 12 European Union countries. Great Britain, Italy, France, and Switzerland are the most important markets outside of Germany, which accounts for 35 percent of sales. “The European market is a strong growing market for us,” says Stefan Hauck, manager of quality and development.
Life Food has steadily grown since its start in 1987 when company founders, Wolfgang Heck and Guenter Klein, began making tofu in a rented basement. Today, Life Food employs 100 people and generates sales of about 12 million euros per year.
Life Food has a strong focus on product quality, says Hauck. “We don’t produce anything we wouldn’t eat at home. We are focused on a good manufacturing process that guarantees a high quality and high standard.”
Demand for the Life Food’s products are growing by 20 percent per year, yet the company spends little money on marketing. Popularity of the company’s products has spread by word of mouth. “Customers tell others about products and how good they are,” says Hauck.
Life Food’s location in southwest Germany near the French-Swiss border is important, says Hauck. “We have the influence of the French food culture,” he says.
“What can we do to keep GMOs out?”
The location is also important because Life Food contracts farmers in the region to grow organic soybeans used in Taifun products.
The introduction of genetically modified soybeans in 1996 provided the impetus for growing soybeans locally. “We thought, ‘What can we do to keep GMOs out?’ so we decided to start our own soybean growing project,” says Martin Miersch, manager of purchasing and soybean production.
In 1997, Life Food approached organic farmers in the region to encourage them to grow soybeans for the company. The southwest region, known as Baden, is a warmer climate that is conducive to soybean production with early maturing varieties.
But the first year of production was not very successful due to inexperience with soybean production and low protein seed varieties. Life Food solved the problem by purchasing soybean seed varieties from Prograin, a soybean breeder in Quebec, Canada. “We found their varieties perform well, with high-yield and high-protein,” says Miersch.
Today, Life Food contracts 37 organic farmers in the Baden region to produce organic soybeans, which account for 50 percent of the annual required supply of 1500 metric tons. The other 50 percent of soybean supplies are purchased from Brazilian farmers, who also grow Life Food’s seed varieties.
Miersch says local soybean production has created a win-win situation for everyone. “The varieties perform well, and we can pay high prices to farmers, so they have a good alternative for income.”
Stringent non-GMO controls
Life Food has established stringent non-GMO controls to ensure virtually GMO-free production. It starts with seed. Each year, Life Food purchases about three tons of basic seeds, then multiplies the seed, and distributes them to farmers. Limiting the number of seeds imported makes GMO control easier. Before seed is multiplied, it is tested using the DNA-based PCR method. Life Food uses only PCR testing, which is conducted at Biochem, a German laboratory. Miersch believes other methods are not as accurate in detecting GM material. Taifun personnel also inspect fields during the growing season. Harvested soybeans are PCR tested before transportation to Life Food’s cleaning facility. PCR tests are also conducted on finished products. In addition, each year Life Food analyzes a certain number of 80 other raw materials, including oils, flour, spices, herbs, and vegetables, to assess GM risk. For example, sweet corn is placed in a high-risk group and tested.
Detection of trace GMOs is a disaster
Life Food has zero tolerance for any GM material, and there are good reasons for this, says Miersch. “Most North Americans don’t understand why we insist on 100 percent non-GMO,” he says. “There is no acceptance in our society for any GMOs in food.”
According to Miersch, several German consumer magazines, including Test, the German equivalent of the United State’s Consumer Reports, conduct regular GMO tests on consumer products. Test results are then published in major newspapers and reported on television news. “If we had one 0.1 percent GMO in our tofu, just traces, it would be on the evening news and be a disaster for marketing and sales,” says Miersch.
As a result, Miersch says, “We can’t see any advantage to GM food.”
Copyright 2006. The Organic & Non-GMO Report
(May 2006)
http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/may06/soybeans_GMO_free.php

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Growing Great Soybeans
by Dr. Harold Willis
from Acres USA March 1989, pp. 1, 6-8
TABLE
ANATOMY OF GROWTH
LIGHT AND PODS
MATURITY GROUP
GETTING STARTED
NUTRIENTS
CROPPING
The soybean is a truly amazing and versatile crop plant. It is one of the oldest food plants, domesticated by 1 100 BC in northeastern China. Its ancestor is a wild vine-like plant which produces tiny, hard seeds that are useless for food unless properly prepared.
Over the next several hundred years the domesticated soybean (called Glycine max by botanists) spread throughout much of eastern Asia. It grew upright and yielded larger, more digestible seeds. A variety of foods was developed from the soybean, ranging from soybean sprouts to steamed raw beans to roasted seeds to soy milk to soy sauce to fermented soybean paste and cake to soy flour to the commonly eaten curd called tofu (or doufu).
Soybeans reached the western world by the early 1700s and were first grown in North America by 1804. Benjamin Franklin appears to have been involved in introducing soybeans from France to Philadelphia at that time. A number of varieties were grown and evaluated in the United States during the 1800s. The primary use for the crop was for forage, hay and green manure.
In the 1880s, French scientists discovered that the soybean contains practically no starch, so its use in diabetic diets began. Later its high protein content was recognized.
Modern uses. In the early 1900s the first processing of seeds t`or oil and meal was done in England. For the most part, soybeans were a neglected crop until World War II. Germany developed a soy oil lard substitute and a meat substitute. In the U.S. increasing from soybean sprouts to steamed raw beans to roasted seeds to soy milk to soy sauce to fermented soybean paste and cake to soy flour to the commonly eaten curd called tofu (or doufu).
Soybeans reached the western world by the early 1700s and were first grown in North America by 1804. Benjamin Franklin appears to have been involved in introducing soybeans from France to Philadelphia at that time. A number of varieties were grown and evaluated in the United States during the 1800s. The primary use for the crop was for forage, hay and green manure.
In the 1880s, French scientists discovered that the soybean contains practically no starch so its use in diabetic diets began. Later its high protein content was recognized.
Modern uses. In the early 1900s the first processing of seeds for oil and meal was done in England. For the most part soybeans were a neglected crop until World War II. Germany developed a soy oil lard substitute and a meat substitute. In the U.S. increasing amounts of soybean meal were used as livestock and poultry feed, especially after 1945 when consumption of meat increased dramatically. More recently, an increasing proportion of American soybean production has been used by the food processing industry--in such foods as margarine, shortening, ice cream, salad dressings and mayonnaise. Industry uses lesser amounts in products including paint, ink, putty, caulking, wallpaper, rubber substitutes, adhesives, fire extinguisher foam, electrical insulation and gasoline. The versatile soybean is a part of everyone's life in developed countries.
At present, most soybeans (over three-fourths of the world supply) are grown in the United States (especially in the cornbelt and Mississippi Valley), in Brazil and Argentina. China produces most of the soybeans grown in the Orient, while only a few are grown in Europe. In the U.S., the soybean is third in production (corn and wheat are first and second) and second in value (corn is first) of crops grown.
Growth and development. In order to best manage soybean production, one needs an understanding of how the plant grows and develops,
Germination. After being planted in the soil, the seed absorbs moisture, changing from less than 13% moisture to about 50% in several hours. After one or two days the first root (called the radicle) emerges through the seed coat and begins growing downward to establish the root system.
The upper part of the young plant (the hypocotyl) begins to lengthen, pulling the remainder of the seed upward. About five to fifteen days after planting, the new plant arches through the soil and the oval seed leaves (cotyledons) open up. The cotyledons provide the seedling with food (that u as stored in them) for about a week, plus they soon turn green and begin making a little additional food by photosynthesis. Later they drop off.
ANATOMY OF GROWTH
Seed germination and emergence is a critical period in the life of a soybean because poor emergence due to a soil crust cold temperatures or seedling pests or diseases can drastically cut yield.
Vegetative growth. After the seedling has emerged from the soil the young stem and first leaves begin to rapidly grow upward. The seedling is very tough and frost resistant. If the terminal bud (growing tip) of the stem is killed side buds will take over.
After emergence for the first six to eight weeks the soybean grows its stem (and possibly branches) and leaves. This is called the vegetative period.
The first two leaves that develop are called unifoliates meaning that the leaf has a single flat surface the blade similar to the leaves of elm or maple trees. The remaining leaves are three-bladed, or trifoliates. Here the total leaf has three divisions all attached to a single "leaf stalk," or petiole. The place u here a leaf petiole attaches to the stem is called a node. Later flowers will develop at the nodes between the petiole and stem, and branches also grow out from here.
After the first fen leaves develop. Overall growth of the plant increases rapidly. If plants are spaced far apart more side branches will grow outward to capture as much light as possible, producing a bushy-looking plant. Plants in dense stands tend to grow upward, with few or no branches. Some soybean varieties tend to branch more than others.
As new upper leaves begin to shade older, lower leaves the lower leaves may turn yellow and tall off. This is nothing to be concerned about since the plant is just getting rid of unproductive leaves.
Roots. While the stem and leaves are growing upward the root system is growing deeper into the soil. At first the plant grows a main taproot but soon side roots branch off and still others grow off from them. The deepest roots may reach down five feet or more in loose well drained soil but most of the roots are found in the upper one foot of soil.
The young roots start to develop root nodules within a week after emergence if the proper nitrogen-fixing bacteria are present in the soil. The nitrogen fixing nodule bacteria, technically called Rhizobium enter the nodules and after ten to fourteen days are able to supply most of the plant's nitrogen needs, if the nodules are healthy. In favorable soil conditions a couple dozen or so pea-sized nodules will develop on the upper roots of a plant. Healthy nodules will be pink or reddish inside.

Flowering. In typical soybean plants after six to ten trifoliate leaves have grown, the next main stage in the plant's life begins the reproductive period. From 3 to 15 flower buds develop at each node of the stem.
There are two main types of soybean depending on how flowering occurs. Varieties called indeterminate continue growing upward at the tip of the stem for several weeks after flowering begins lower on the stem. Upper nodes will not flower until later. Most commercial varieties are indeterminate. They typically grow taller and do best in short growing seasons.
A few varieties are called determinate and complete their growth in height first. then all flowers bloom at about the same time. They are usually one-half to two-thirds as tall as indeterminate varieties and so are often called "semi-dwarfs." There are also some intermediate varieties, called semi-determinate which grow taller during the first part of their flowering period.
The flowers of soybean are tiny (1/4 inch) and white, pink or purple. They resemble the flowers of pea or clover, since the soybean is in the same plant family, the legume family. Many more flowers are produced than eventually produce seed pods. The extras drop off, anywhere t`rom 50 to 80% of the total.
The flowers are self-pollinated; that is, the flower fertilizes itself, and insects are not required to carry pollen from one flower to another.
LIGHT AND PODS
The light factor. The beginning of the flowering period is hastened by higher temperatures and a greater amount of vegetative growth, but a major factor that controls flowering is photoperiod--the length of the day. Flowering of a certain variety begins sooner when the days are shorter and later when the days are longer (if the plants are grown where there is artificial light during the night, they may never flower).
Each variety is adapted to flower and complete its life cycle at a certain geographic latitude (distance from the equator). Normally, if planted in the spring, the plants will begin flowering in mid-summer, after the days begin to get longer (in the northern hemisphere, the longest day, the summer solstice, is about June 21). But the days are longer the closer one gets to the pole (the sun never sets above the arctic circle during the summer). This means that if you try to grow a variety adapted to a certain latitude, say around St. Louis, Missouri, at more northerly locations, say Minneapolis, Minnesota, the days will be longer and the plants will not begin to flower until later, and they may not mature before frost. If grown to the south, they will mature too soon and yield will be reduced.
Therefore, soybean varieties are grouped into 13 maturity groups, depending on the climate and latitude for which they are adapted. These maturity groups are given numbers, with numbers 000, 00, 0 and 1 being adapted to Canada and the northern United States, and numbers VII, VIII and IX being grown in the southern U.S. (Group X is tropical.) Be certain to plant a variety adapted to your area.

Pod development. One or two weeks after the first flowers, the first seed pods appear, with most pods being set within the next three weeks. Inside the pod, three (or sometimes four) tiny seeds begin to grow and develop.
For the next 30 to 40 days, the seeds rapidly fill with food produced in the leaves. The seed-filling period is the most critical in the life of the soybean plant with regard to yield. If weather conditions are adverse, such as drought stress or leaf loss from hail, yields will be cut severely. At this time, the plant takes 30 to 40% of its total mineral needs from the soil, so soil fertility should be at a peak.
After most seeds have filled, the growth activities of the plant rather suddenly slow down (called senescence). The leaves slow down their photosynthesis and begin to turn yellow, eventually dropping off. Root nodules cease producing nitrogen.
Maturity. The newly formed seeds contain about 90% moisture. As the seeds fill with food, moisture content decreases to about 60 to 65%. When seeds are mature (filled), the moisture content is 45 to 55% and the pods and stems of the plant are yellow or brown. The mature seed itself will also be completely yellow when mature (if it is a yellow-seeded variety).
In warm, dry weather, seed moisture will continue to drop to about 13 to 14%, when the crop can be harvested. In some varieties especially, the dying plants tend to lodge, making harvesting difficult, and in some varieties, pods tend to split open (shatter), dropping the seed and reducing harvestable yield.
As soybean seeds lose moisture they change from large, kidney bean shaped to smaller and nearly round. When dry, the seed contains about 40% protein, 21% oil, 34% carbohydrates and 5% ash.
Varieties. There is an amazing number of soybean varieties. Just about every valley in China, Japan and Korea grows its own variety, adapted to local conditions. A collection of over 10,000 strains of soybean seeds is maintained by the USDA. A glance of an assortment of these seeds reveals seeds of every color and description--some red, some green, some black, some brown, some speckled or streaked, some large and some tiny.
The great majority of soybean varieties grown commercially today is for animal feed and oil production (for food processing and industrial uses). Most are yellow-seeded field varieties. Other varieties can be obtained for special uses: forage and hay (with an abundance of stems and leaves; small seeded black and brown late varieties) and human food (large-seeded, various colored varieties). For the most part, we will stick to commercial field varieties in this book, except for the last chapter.
Hybrids. Commercial hybrid soybean seed is very difficult to produce. This is because of the way the soybean reproduces: it is self-pollinating. Hybrids are made by soybean seed breeders, but it is a laborious, expensive process. From various ancestral and hybrid varieties, the commercial varieties are developed, both by agricultural experiment stations and private seed companies.
Seed quality. Varieties are developed to produce high yields of good quality seed, to mature properly for the geographic area, to be resistant to lodging and shattering, to be cold and drought tolerant, and to resist diseases and pests. Factors of seed quality mag include low numbers of defective or shriveled seeds, high germination rate, high oil and/or protein content and human food value.
Soybean seeds sold by reliable seed dealers should come with certain important information: the variety, the Maturity Group number, percent inert matter, percent weed seed, percent other crop seed, germination rate and resistance to diseases and/or pests. The U.S. plant variety protection act of 1970 and the earlier federal seed act, as well as state seed laws, provide standards and protection to dealers, but some private growers may not adhere to these standards. Anyone can save some of his seed to grow the next year, but this is no assurance of quality.
Selecting a variety. In selecting which variety you wish to plant assuming you are growing field soybeans. sou need to consider several things. First, buy the best quality seed you can find. Certified tested seed is usually worth the cost. You can test for germination rate by counting out 25 whole seeds and roll them up in a damp cloth. Keep in a warm (70 to 80 degrees F.) place Sprinkle with water if necessary to keep the cloth moist. After five or six days, unroll the cloth and count the seeds that have germinated out of 25. Multiply by 4 and divide by 100 to get the percentage germination.
MATURITY GROUP
Be sure to get seed of a Maturity Group adapted to your area. You may want to vary slightly the maturity group depending on soil type (an early variety for cool, wet, fine-textured soils and a later variety on coarse, well-drained soils). Avoid early varieties in fields where tall broadleaf weeds may get out of hand. If you want to follow the soybeans with fall-seeded small grains, use an early-maturing soybean.
One way to allow for uncertain weather conditions is to plant more than one maturity, either in different fields or as a seed blend, a mixture of varieties. That way at least one variety should give a reasonably good yield. If you save your own seed to replant, sou will not get the same proportion as what was in the blend.
Select a variety that is shatter and lodging resistant, especially if you intend to plant high populations, since the plants will grow taller, more slender stems.
Disease and insect resistance may be important if these have been a problem in your area; however, by improving your soil's fertility and structure, most such problems should disappear.
Indeterminate varieties should be used in the North, and determinate varieties do not do well in soils that crust. For wide rows, bushy varieties are best, to fill in the space quickly.
If you use a grain drill for planting, avoid seed lots with many large seeds, which do not flow well through the drill. Use seed lots with 2,400 seeds per pound or less. Small-seeded varieties have some advantages: the seedlings emerge better through crusted soil, fewer pounds of seed are needed to establish a certain plant population, and it is often easier to produce high quality grain (because smaller seeds suffer less damage during harvesting and handling).
You can often get valuable advice on selecting varieties from your agricultural research and extension personnel or from seed dealers. They may have performance test results which can be a rough guide of what to expect from a variety.
GETTING STARTED
The first thing we need to think about before doing any field work is the soil and its fertility, for without good soil it is impossible to grow a good crop. And a good soil will actually give the plants protection from adverse weather--cold, frost, drought, excess water--as well as protection from pests and diseases.
Fortunately, the soybean is a hardy, not-too-particular plant and can do reasonably well in a variety of soils and soil conditions, but to produce high yields of top quality soybeans, you need to get your soil into really good condition.
The ideal soil. Ideal soil for peak soybean production is a loose, well-drained loam. All too many fields these days have tight, crusty soil that becomes waterlogged when it rains. More than likely, such soil is low in humus and has an imbalance in mineral nutrients. Probably there are few beneficial soil organisms (certain bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, earthworms and others). In short, the soil is "dead."
The advantages of loose, well-aerated soil with adequate humus and abundant living organisms include the following: (1) Loose, aerated soil allows air to get to roots and nitrogen-fixingroot nodules, plus it soaks up rain and lessens erosion, and it discourages many of the worst weeds. (2) Humus and soil organisms provide steady, balanced nutrition to roots, soak up and hold moisture (provide "droughtproofing"), and protect roots from harmful nematodes, insects and disease pathogens. (3) Organic matter also tends to buffer soil from extremes in pH (acidity and alkalinity).
Modern agriculture. Yet many of today's agricultural practices tend to degrade soil and produce the tight, crusty, lifeless conditions mentioned earlier. The overuse of synthetic salt fertilizers and anhydrous ammonia tends to reduce soil life and humus, leading to hard soil. Some of the herbicides and pesticides also do the same thing. Too much field traffic and heavy machinery compact soil. Even using the wrong kind of lime may in some cases lead to soil degradation.
NUTRIENTS
Nutrient needs. Plants need various amounts of nutrient elements from the soil as they grow and produce seeds. Other than nitrogen, they should be present in adequate amounts in ideal soils, but most soils either have deficiencies or imbalances in the amounts of nutrients available to the plants. Here is a brief summary of the soil nutrients:
Nitrogen (abbreviated N) is needed by the plant for certain enzyme functions, to make proteins, and as a necessary part of chlorophyll, nucleic acids, vitamins and several other substances. Soybeans can obtain all the nitrogen they need from root nodule nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In fact, in tests where fertilizer nitrogen was added to soil, no yield increase occurred, plus the root nodules fixed less nitrogen.
You should need to add no nitrogen fertilizer when growing soybeans unless root nodules do not form well, which can happen the first time soybeans are grown in a field or when soil conditions are toxic to the nodule bacteria. From 60 to 80 pounds per acre of supplemental nitrogen can then be applied between one month after emergence and first flowering.
Phosphorus (P). Soybeans need a lot of phosphorus, which is used for general growth and metabolism and for photosynthesis. It carries energy from one part of a cell to another and helps transport food from one part of the plant to another. It also makes up part of cell membranes, nucleic acids and other components. It is necessary for growing really high quality crops. Young seedlings especially need available phosphorus.
The soil has plenty of phosphorus, but most of it is tied up in insoluble soil minerals and in soil organic matter. The best way to get phosphorus to crop plants is to have soil with adequate levels of humus and beneficial soil organisms, which decompose organic matter and break down soil minerals to release nutrients to the plants.
Adding soluble phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, triple superphosphate, etc.) does little good because these soluble forms quickly change back to insoluble mineral phosphate. Good sources of soil-building natural phosphate fertilizers are soft rock (colloidal) phosphate and basic slag. These contain a small proportion of available phosphorus, plus some calcium and trace elements.
Potassium (K). Needed for the plant's enzyme functions, food transport, protein and chlorophyll production, and in regulating water balance, potassium is needed by soybeans in fairly large amounts.
As with phosphorus, most soils (except sand) contain large amounts of potassium, but mostly tied up in the minerals of the soil. If soil organisms are healthy and active, the crop plants should receive enough potassium, since soil microbes break it down from minerals.
If your soil is very low in potassium, the best overall fertilizer source is potassium sulfate (0-0-50). Avoid using potassium chloride (0-0-60, muriate of potash), since it has a high salt index, and the chloride ion can injure soil microbes as well as soybeans themselves if present in high amounts. Potassium sulfate is more expensive than potassium chloride, but only about one-half as much is needed, and the extra sulfur is usually beneficial.
Calcium (Ca). Adequate available calcium levels are very important in growing high quality soybeans. Calcium is vitally important for cell division, root hair growth, enzyme functions and normal cell walls. Calcium improves plant's resistance to disease and gives higher quality, more nutritious crops.
Calcium and magnesium (Mg) are connected in plant usage. Magnesium is needed as part of chlorophyll and in nucleic acids, cell membranes and protein-producing structures. In the soil, calcium and magnesium "compete" for plant absorption. Too much magnesium upsets the plant's use of calcium and potassium, giving rise to low quality crops, plus in some soils, excess magnesium leads to hard, crusty conditions. Most soils (except acid, sandy soils) should have plenty of magnesium, so none should be added. In general, soils in the western two-thirds of the U.S. have adequate calcium, while those in the eastern one-third may be deficient.
The best way to add calcium to soils is to use high-calcium lime (calcium carbonate). It has little magnesium and dissolves fairly quickly (more so if finely ground). The use of dolomitic lime (calcium magnesium carbonate) is unnecessary if soil already has enough magnesium, plus dolomitic lime is hard and slow to dissolve. In alkaline soil, gypsum (calcium sulfate) is the best calcium source.
Sulfur (S). Soybeans use quite a lot of sulfur, which is needed to build proteins and in enzyme functions. Many soils have adequate sulfur because of air pollution from burning high-sulfur coal, but other soils are deficient.
If sulfur is needed, use sulfate-containing fertilizers (calcium sulfate, potassium sulfate), not elemental sulfur (flowers of sulfur), which is slow to become available.
Micronutrients. Other elements are needed by plants, but only in very small amounts. Thus they are called the micronutrients or trace elements. Important are iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), boron (B), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), cobalt (Co) and chlorine (Cl). Eco-farming suggests that half a hundred in some way figure in the production sequence. Molybdenum is needed by nitrogen fixing bacteria. For a more detailed discussion on this topic, see An Acres U.S.A. Primer.
In soybeans, the most frequent micronutrient deficiencies are for iron, zinc, manganese and molybdenum. But such deficiencies usually occur in poor, weathered or sandy soils, or in soils that are very alkaline or excessively high in organic matter (mucks and peats). A loamy soil with adequate humus and soil life should not have micronutrient deficiencies.
If a micronutrient is deficient in your soil, add only that element, not a "shotgun" trace element fertilizer, since too much of some micronutrients will be toxic.
Balance. For healthy crops and high quality yields, it is important that nutrient elements be available to the plants in the proper amounts and in the right balance. Too much or too little of some elements can cause deficiencies of others.
pH. The acidity or alkalinity of the soil is called pH. It is expressed on a numerical scale ranging from 0 (most acid) to 14 (most alkaline), with a 7 being neutral. Soybeans can tolerate a wide range of pH if they have adequate nutrients, but do best in slightly acid soil, from pH 5.8 to 7.0.
Soil pH affects the availability of nutrient elements and the types and ability of soil organisms to live, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Extremely acid (low pH) or alkaline (high pH) conditions are bad, but in normal fertile soil, pH can fluctuate over a growing season without harm. Adequate humus levels in soil will buffer extremes in pH and bring soil toward best pH levels.
Lime has been used to counteract soil acidity and raise pH, but its primary value is adding calcium. A healthy, humus-rich soil is the best insurance against extreme pH.
Soil tests. In order to get your soil into a proper balance of nutrients, you should have frequent soil tests made (at least once or twice a year, in spring and fall). The trouble with soil tests is that some are more reliable than others, and there are various ways of testing soil, some of which give accurate results but tell you little about what your crops really need. The type of soil test which gives the most useful information is a water-soluble test. This test tells how much nutrient is available to the plant at that time, rather than the total nutrients in the soil (but mostly unavailable). Most testing labs do not run water-soluble tests unless you request them.
Tests may vary slightly, but using one method (the LaMotte system), desirable water soluble levels for major nutrients are:
2000 pounds/acre calcium
400 pounds/acre phosphate (P2O5)
200 pounds/acre potassium
40 pounds/acre nitrogen
These figures do not translate to non water-soluble tests and may be higher or lower than most experts recommend, but they do produce high quality crops. Generally, one should not worry about trace elements until the major elements are at proper levels.
Plant tissue testing, as done by most labs, is not as informative as water soluble soil tests. Tissue tests only test the soluble contents of the cells. Some nutrients- are part of the cell structure and are not soluble. Sometimes the soil may have plenty of nutrients, but they are not getting into the plant because of poor root functions or toxic soil conditions.
Tillage. Tillage is done for three reasons: to prepare a seedbed or improve soil structure, to incorporate organic matter and fertilizers, to aerate the soil, and to control weeds. There are several commonly used tillage methods. The moldboard plow lifts and turns the soil, inverting the plow layer. This causes drastic disturbance in the soil ecosystem, but can be useful in heavy soils if done in the fall. Winter freezing and thawing may improve soil structure.
Chisel plows fracture the soil rather than turning it. Less energy is needed to pull the plow, and the soil is disturbed less. Some plant residue is left on the surface, which is helpful for reducing erosion.
Discs cut and loosen soil and incorporate much of the plant residue, but they compact the soil beneath the blades.
Field cultivators and springtooth harrows dig and lift the upper layers of soil and do not compact lower soil. Little residue is incorporated.
Rotary hoes break up clods and crusts and leave a fine-particle layer.
Subsoilers and deep chisels are used to fracture subsoil and break up hardpans, in an attempt to improve drainage and deep soil structure. Generally the effects are temporary, and without - increasing soil humus, hard soil conditions will return.
In general, tillage on humus-poor, heavy soils causes deleterious effects, especially if overdone. Soil structure is destroyed, organic matter disappears and erosion increases. Tillage operations should be kept to a minimum if soil is poor.
No-till. The above disadvantages of tillage in poor soils have led to the development and promotion of various reduced- and no-till systems. By using special planters that can operate in surface crop residue and by using high levels of herbicide for weed control, crops can be grown fairly successfully (except in northern climates on poorly drained clay soils).
While it is true that reduced-tillage systems do reduce erosion and save fuel, the requirements for high amounts of fertilizer and pesticides and the longterm tendency for deep soil to become depleted in oxygen and toxic are disadvantages. Soil-living pests and diseases often increase, and springtime soil temperatures may be cold.
All of these disadvantages of no-till could be eliminated and most of the advantages obtained if an adequate level of humus (up to 10 to 12%) is maintained in the soil and if the use of materials toxic to soil organisms is reduced or eliminated (pesticides, some herbicides, high-salt and chlorine-containing fertilizers, over-use of raw manure). Humus and soil life create loose, non-crusting soil structure and break up hard subsoil and hardpans, improving drainage. Erosion is greatly reduced because humus holds soil particles in small clumps (aggregates).
Ridge planting. A fairly new tillage method that works well in some cases for corn and soybeans is called ridge planting or ridge-till. Rows must be at least 30 inches apart to allow ridges and valleys to be built up (branching varieties of soybeans must be used). The crop is planted on top of the ridges, with crop residue left in the valleys. Earlier planting is possible because ridge tops warm up soon, and wind erosion is reduced. Ridges catch more snow in winter. Weeds can be cultivated out in the valleys. Ridges must be built up each year, and machinery must be compatible with the ridge widths.
Which? The tillage methods you use should depend on your climate, soil type, slope, crop rotation, machinery and costs.
CROPPING
Cropping systems. Most people grow soybeans in a crop rotation sequence, typically with a non-legume such as corn, small grains, sorghum or cotton. The yield of the non-legume is improved because of the left over nitrogen from the soybean root nodules. Also, disease, pest and weed problems are reduced in rotations compared to growing one crop continuously. These disadvantages can be overcome if soil is in peak fertility and condition.
Soybeans are also often grown in a double-cropping system, with two crops being grown in the same year. Winter wheat followed by soybeans is the most common; snapbeans or peas followed by soybeans is another. Timing is critical in more northerly areas.
Intercropping, in which two crops are planted in alternating rows or strips, or in which one crop is broadcast into the other, has been tried with mixed success. Sometimes aerial seeding was used. Conditions must be just right. Examples include planting soybeans in standing small grain, small grain into growing soybeans, ryegrass or clover into growing soybeans, alternate strips of corn and soybeans, corn and soybeans in the same rows, and early soybeans into a growing late variety. Interseeding grasses or legume-grass mixtures into soybeans at the leaf-yellow or leaf-drop stage will provide an excellent erosion reducing ground cover over the winter that can be worked into the soil next spring.
Row width. In northern and central regions of the U.S., soybeans grown in narrow rows yield more than those grown in corn-width rows. In southern areas, the same may be true if good weed control is achieved. To produce maximum yield, soybean foliage should completely cover the space between rows by the time flowering begins. The plants tend to do this anyway, producing more branches in wide rows (but if you use wide rows, be sure to plant a bushy variety). The faster the foliage covers the ground, the less weeds are a problem, but one cannot cultivate weeds with narrow rows.
In recent years row widths have decreased, averaging about 18 inches and sometimes as small as 7 inches (and experimentally even 2 ½ inches). Newer planters will plant narrow rows, or older planters can often be modified. It is recommended that soil fertility for narrow rows be increased 10 to 20% over levels for wide rows.
Linear feet per acre at different row widths
(From Modern Soybean production, 1983, p. 90)
Row width (inches) Linear feet of row per acre Row width (inches) Linear feet of row per acre
40 13 068 22 23 760
38 13 756 20 26 136
36 14 520 18 29 040
34 15 374 16 32 670
32 16 345 14 37 337
30 17 424 12 43 560
28 18 668 10 52 272
26 20 105 8 65 340
24 21 780 6 87 120
Population. Soybeans can adjust to a wide range of plant populations. Yields remain fairly constant within a range of 70,000 to 180,000 plants per acre. For wide rows, about 150,000 is a good target, with 175,000 for narrow rows (solid seeding). At lower populations, plants branch more and lodge less, while at high populations the opposite is true. Pods form higher on the plant in high populations. Weeds are more of a problem in low populations, Populations should be adjusted to reduce lodging and keep pods high on the plant. Populations can be increased when growing determinate, semi-dwarf and non-branching varieties.
Seedbed preparation. An ideal seedbed for soybeans should provide adequate moisture and warmth for rapid germination and seedling establishment. Soil should be friable and not crusted. Germination of weed seeds should be delayed or prevented.
Soybeans need a lot of moisture to germinate (50% of their weight). Soil moisture must be sufficient at planting depth. There should be good soil-seed contact. If soybeans get off to a rapid start, young weeds can be shaded out. One way to discourage weeds is to prepare an ideal seedbed only in the rows and leave the soil rough and cloddy or covered by residue between the rows. Another approach is to prepare the seedbed well ahead of planting, let the weeds germinate, then refill just before planting to kill sprouted weeds.
Most people use herbicides to control weeds, but - such chemicals may have their deleterious environmental effects, and their use can be avoided as we shall see later in these articles.
Planting. As mentioned earlier, use good quality seed of high germination rate (80 to 90% or more). If soybeans have not been grown on that soil for three to five years, it is best to inoculate the seed with the proper strain of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium). Some strains are more effective nitrogen fixers than others. The bacterial inoculant can be applied to the seed just before planting time or in the row during planting (the latter requires soil inoculant)
Seed can also be treated with fungicide, but unless the soil is cold, if the germination rate is over 85%, there is little advantage in this. Lower germination seed may have a 5 to 10% increase in emergence if treated.
Early planting usually gives higher yields, but only if a good stand is obtained. Cool weather will delay germination and allow root diseases or pests to get a start. Soil and air temperatures of 55 to 60 degrees F. are needed for good germination and seedling establishment. Germination rates increase at warmer temperatures, and high quality seed is more likely to produce a good stand. The predicted weather is probably the most important factor to consider, along with your local soil conditions. Adequate moisture is essential for germination.
Planting rate. To achieve a desired population, you need to calculate the number of seeds required. Some seeds will not germinate, and some that germinate will not become established because of weather, pests or disease. Generally, if the seedbed and planter are good, about 90 to 95% of germinated seedlings will become established. To figure planting rate, use this formula:
desired population per foot of row = seeds needed per foot of row
% germination x % expected establishment

For example: 6 / .80 x .95= 7.9 per foot of row
You need to plant 7.9 seeds per foot of row to get six plants per foot. Since soybean seed is usually sold by weight rather than by number of seeds, you -need to know the number of seeds per pound to figure pounds needed per acre. If the seed dealer cannot give you number of seeds per pound, weigh a few one-ounce samples on a postage scale to get an average figure.
The number of linear feet of row per acre can be found from the accompanying table. Then figure the pounds of seed needed per acre:
seeds per foot of row x total feet of row = pounds of seed per acre
seeds per pound

7,9 x 29 040 / 3500 = 65.5 pounds of seeds
Calibrate your planter accordingly and check seed drop in the field regularly.
Planting depth. Seeds should be planted deep enough to absorb enough moisture to germinate, but not so deep that they have trouble emerging from the soil. Some varieties can emerge from greater depths than others. Typical planting depths are I to 1 l/: inches, but if soil is low in moisture or sandy plant 2 inches deep. In cool, moist soil, seed can be planted 1 inch deep if there is no danger from herbicide.
Planting method. Best results are obtained using a unit planter or grain drill to plant in rows. Drills usually do not handle rough seedbeds as well as planters. Broadcasting or aerial seeding followed by light tillage to cover seed often results in uneven emergence and stands that are too thin in some areas and too thick in others.
Replanting. If a stand of soybeans is reduced by disease, pests, hail, flooding, herbicide injury, etc., replanting may be considered. If the loss is covered by crop insurance, consult your insurance agent first. If most of a field is lost, be sure enough growing season is left for beans to mature.
If the surviving population is 75% or more of the desired population, replanting is not necessary (unless weeds will be a problem) since the surviving plants will branch out to fill in gaps.
When replanting, you may want to use shallow tillage to kill young weeds. Do not apply herbicide. Use a variety with maturity date appropriate for the later planting date, increase the seeding rate by 10 to 15% and plant in narrow rows to increase yield. Above all, rely on the eco-principles set forth in The Rest of the Story, The Coming Revolution in Agriculture, and in An Acres U.S.A. Primer under topics such as soil, air, water and decay management.


________________________________________
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Give us your comments about the EAP site
________________________________________
Ecological Agriculture Projects, McGill University (Macdonald Campus)
Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 Canada
Telephone: (514)-398-7771
Fax: (514)-398-7621
Email: eapinfo@macdonald.mcgill.ca
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Laboratory for

Soybean Disease Research

http://www.soydiseases.uiuc.edu/
http://www.ncsrp.com/
http://www.ipm.uiuc.edu/diseases.html
http://www.siu.edu/~soybean/
http://www.ipmcenters.org/index.cfm


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How to Grow Soybeans
Growing soybeans has become increasingly popular with home gardeners. These warm weather plants are native to Africa, Asia, and Australia. They have gained popularity here due to their health benefits. They are high in fiber and protein, and area good source of calcium. They taste good ,too.
Home gardeners find it is easy to grow soybeans. They are grown just like any other bush bean, and produce high yields.
________________________________________
Days to Maturity:
Plants require about 85 days to harvest. Try succession planting for continuous harvest over several weeks.
________________________________________
Sowing Soybean Seeds:
Plant outdoors after the last frost date for your area. Soil should be warm before planting. Sow Soybean seeds 2 inches apart, in rows 20" to 24" apart. If your garden space is limited, plant in double rows. Water well after planting, and a second time two to four days later, only if there has been no rain. Side dress the rows with general purpose fertilizer during planting.
________________________________________
How to Grow Soybeans:
Soybeans are easy to grow. They grow best in full sun and in warm weather. They prefer a rich soil, high in nitrogen. Soil should be kept moist for optimum growth.
Soybeans grow best in rich soil. Add manure and compost prior to planting. Fertilizer regularly during the growth period.
Harvest soybeans when the pods are full. Rinse the pods, then boil them for twenty minutes. Allow to cool, then squeeze the pods to remove the beans. Beans can be frozen or canned.
Did you know? Soybean plants are rich in nutrients. After the harvest, put plants in the compost pile, turn them into your soil.
________________________________________
Insects and Pests:
Like other beans, soybeans are susceptible to a variety of insects, most notably beetles. They can be effectively treated with Sevin, Diazinon or a variety of other insecticides.
Rabbits eat the tender new leaves. If there are rabbits in your area, a rabbit fence is not a nicety, it is a necessity. They will devastate a row of beans in a hurry, eating the tender new leaves. As new ones develop, they will come back for more.
________________________________________
Diseases of Soybeans:
Bacterial and wilt diseases are common among the Bean family. This plant disease arrives with summer heat and humidity. This often occurs just before, or during, the ripening of the crop. Fungicides are recommended in areas of high heat and humidity.
________________________________________
Hardiness:

Beans are not a hardy plant. They are susceptible to cold and frost. Hold off planting until a few days before all danger of frost is past. In the fall, cover the crop on nights when the temperature is expected to go below 40 degrees.
http://www.gardenersnet.com/vegetable/soybean.htm

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Dear Gohand:

Utaw is the tagalong term for soybean. In Cebu, it is also known as ‘utaw’. It is the primary ingredient in the preparation of soymilk, taho and tofu or tokwa.

Ideally, soybean should be grown in flat areas. You may also grow it in sloping areas, but you have to consider soil conservation practices such as strip cropping, terracing, etc. Moreover, it is advisable not to do any land preparation to protect the top soil from erosion.

Soybean can be grown in any type of soil but it grows best in well-drained, fertile clay loam or sandy loam with high calcium content.

You can source your planting materials from the Claveria Experiment Station of the Department of Agriculture- Northern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural Research Center (NOMIARC) in Malaybalay, Bukidon. We suggest that you contact DA-Regional Field Unit No. 10 in Antonio Luna Street, Cagayan de Oro City at Telefax. Nos. +63(88) 856-2753 to 55 for information on seed availability.


Ideal intercrops for coconut are perennial crops such as pigeonpea or kadyos, patani, bataw, sitaw because they grow for a relatively longer period of time which allows them to accumulate enough photosynthates during their growing period. It is not financially rewarding to plant soybean under coconut because of depressed yields. If you are keen on planting soybean under coconut, it is advisable not to plow the soil. However, please take note that soybean yield is less than 1 ton per hectare for a coconut plantation of about 100 trees per hectare.

We hope you find these information useful.

Fina Acedera-Atienza
Commodity Specialist, VELERO
http://www.pcarrd.dost.gov.ph/message/viewtopic.php?id=811


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During his year at Walden Pond, Henry David Thoreau labored to "make the ground say beans."
Making the garden say beans makes as much sense today as it did 150 years ago. Beans are easy to
grow. Nodules in their root systems fix atmospheric nitrogen, enriching the soil. And beans, especially
dry beans, are nutritious - high in vegetable protein, fiber, iron and essential minerals.
Growing Conditions
Beans are warm-season crops that require full sun for good growth and yield. Although they will
grow in a wide variety of soils, a sandy loam is best. Beans, especially limas, germinate slowly and
grow poorly in cool, wet soil.
Maintain the soil pH in the range of 6.0 to 6.8 and follow the recommendations of a soil test, thoroughly
incorporating fertilizers, rotted manure or compost into the soil bed before planting.
Planting
Wait to plant beans until after the last predicted spring frost in your hardiness zone, then consider
waiting a bit longer. Beans will not germinate well when the soil temperature is less than 60º F (70º
for lima beans)
Seed bush beans 1 to 1½ inches deep and 2 inches apart in rows spaced 15 to 18 inches apart; seed
limas 1 inch deep if soil is heavy and limas to 4 to 6 inches apart. Seed pole beans 4 inches apart
and space slender poles 12 inches apart or set up a trellis system of woven wire between sturdy
posts set 10 feet apart.
Make successive plantings of green bush beans 10 to 14 days apart until about mid-July. Plant pole
beans, limas, soybeans, shell beans and field (dry) beans only once, since they require a full season
to mature.
Weed control
Quackgrass – Do not plant any vegetable in an area heavily infested with quackgrass. Clean out
this weed by covering the area with heavy agricultural black plastic for a season, planting and
tilling three successive crops of buckwheat or fallowing the ground and rototilling several times
throughout the summer. The herbicide glyphosate is an effective quackgrass control. Follow label
directions exactly. Not all beans are listed on the label.
To control annual weeds mulch with hay, straw, pine needles, chopped leaves or grass clippings
after the beans are 2 to 3 inches high, or cultivate by hand while weeds are small. Practice shallow
cultivation to prevent damage to bean roots.
Pest Control
To prevent bean diseases select disease-resistant varieties, thin plants to allow good air circulation
Growing Beans
Family, Home & Garden Education Center
practical solutions to everyday questions
Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769
M-F . 9 AM - 2 PM
Visit our website: ceinfo.unh.edu
UNH Cooperative Extension programs and policies are consistent with pertinent Federal and State laws and regulations
on non-discrimination regarding age, color, handicap, national origin, race, religion, sex, sexual orientation, or veterans status.
in the bean row, practice good weed control and do not work in the garden or harvest beans when
the plants are wet.
Cutworms, Mexican Bean Beetle and Japanese Beetle are the major insect pests of beans in New
Hampshire. In years when cutworms are numerous delay planting until the second week in June.
To control Mexican Bean Beetles, begin checking young plants for signs of yellow egg clusters on
the undersides of leaves or yellow, wooly larvae on the outside of leaves. Handpick and destroy. If
an infestation gets out of control, spray bean plants with pyrethrum or another garden insecticide
registered for bean beetles. Follow label directions precisely.
Some bean varieties resist Japanese beetles, others are highly susceptible. Although many pesticides
are registered for Japanese Beetles, they often will not provide effective control especially
during years of heavy infestation or in Japanese beetle-prone areas. In such cases, consider growing
bush beans under spun-bonded polyester "floating row covers" available at most garden centers.
Harvest
Harvest snap beans while the pods are slender, before they begin to bulge. Harvest lima, shell, field,
and soybeans for fresh use when the pods are well-filled. Dry beans (shell, field, and soybeans)
should dry on the vine as long as possible (until the first heavy frost, if necessary) before threshing
and storage. Pulling the plants and leaving them in the sun, laid out on a barn floor, or hung in
small bunches from a rafter for 2 to 3 days will hasten drying. A thoroughly mature bean is hard.
Give one the "bite test" before putting dry beans into storage. A properly-dried bean is nearly
impossible to dent.
Storage
Store well-dried (and insect-free) beans in a can or jar with a tight cover to keep out insects and
rodents. Keep in cool, dry and dark storage.
Stop! Read the label on every pesticide container each time before using the material. Pesticides must be
applied only as directed on the label to be in compliance with the law. All pesticides listed in this publication
are contingent upon continued registration. Contact the Division of Pesticide Control at (603) 271-3550 to
check registration status. Dispose of empty containers safely, according to NH regulations.
Fact sheet originally developed by Dr. Otho Wells, former UNH Cooperative Extension Vegetable Specialist, revised 2/01


Rye as a Cover Crop Prior to No-till Organic Soybeans in MN
The concept:
* Plant rye in fall after small grains or corn, silage corn harvest.
* No-till drill soybeans into standing rye the next spring.
* If necessary, mow/shred rye after soybeans have emerged.
Rye planting date and seeding rate:
* Late August – Early September for best fall biomass production @ 1.0 to 1.5 bu/ac
* Late September – October @ 1.5 to 2.5 bu/ac
Rye variety:
* Apparently doesn’t make much difference, but use good quality seed.
* Adapted varieties include Rymin, Prima, Homil21.
Rye planting method:
* Depending on field situation, can be no-tilled (if smooth field with minor weed issues)
* Drilling ensures best seed-to-soil contact, and thus early stand establishment
* Broadcasting and light harrowing also works (use slightly higher seeding rate)
Rye seeding depth:
* Rye is very forgiving. Plant deep (up to 2”) into moisture if necessary.
Fertility:
* If desired, manure can be applied prior to planting rye. The rye will ‘scavenge’ the nutrients.
Soybean planting date:
* After mid-May through mid- to late-June (if rain delayed).
* About the time you would normally plant soybean, or perhaps slightly later.
* Be patient, don’t “mud them in.”
Soybean seeding rate:
* 180,000 to 400,000 seed/ac – wide range, but read why below.
* Because of the rye & rye residue management, increase seeding rate slightly above normal.
* With appropriate varieties, the higher seeding rates (400,000 seeds/ac) can give great results.
(especially if late planted)
Soybean variety:
* Avoid small seeded varieties or varieties that are known to have poorer early vigor.
* Varieties that have worked well in the past include Vintons, Atwood and Norpro.
Soybean planting method:
* No-till drill the soybeans at < 7.5” row width for best results.
(otherwise you give up yield and weed control because of slow canopy closure)
* Consider cross-seeding (planting in two-directions). This does two things: 1) gives a good
spatial distribution of the soybean plants for better canopy closure, and 2) can adequately
control/shred the rye by laying down the rye on the first pass and cutting it up on the
second pass.
Soybean seeding depth:
* Use a good no-till drill: be sure the seed gets in the ground.
* It is desirable to have adequate seed-furrow closure.
Rye mowing/shredding date:
* Wait until the rye has headed (which is somewhat temperature dependent). [~early June]
* Best when pollen shed is or has occurred – waiting to pollen shed ensures less rye regrowth.
* Typically this will be during early- to mid-June, and the soybeans will be at
the first or second visible trifoliolate growth stage.
Rye mowing/shredding method:
* Shred rye as low to the ground as possible (to ensure less rye regrowth),
but above the height of the soybeans.
* Shred at heading, and ideally after pollen shed.
* Can use a flail mower, a sickle mower, or a rotary mower,
but avoid creating windrows with the rye residue.
* This step can be avoided if the soybean is cross-seeded in two directions.
Harvesting the soybean:
* Don’t be surprised that there will be rye seed in the soybean seed harvested.
(This rye can be cleaned out, and sold for feed.)
Do’s:
* Have the proper equipment for seeding the soybeans and mowing/shredding the rye.
* Timely field operations are essential.
* Plant rye early in the fall and at an adequate seeding rate for best weed control.
* Talk with producers who have done this successfully.
* Be patient (and adaptive). The first time you try this you will think it is crazy.
Don’ts:
* Skimp on rye and soybean seed / quality.
* Mow/shred the rye too early.
* Think the system won’t work – it does work (see the ‘Do’s)
Problems / Issues:
* Poor rye stand obvious in early spring -
-- consider turning under the rye, but do this before rye stem elongation.
(if the rye is turned under, plant soybeans on wide rows and cultivate)
* Planted rye late in the fall and there is little early spring growth / biomass -
-- if weed pressure is light and rye stand is good, be patient, the rye will grow.
-- if weed pressure is heavy, consider turning under the rye before stem elongation.
* Wet conditions delays soybean planting until mid- to late-June -
-- plant anyway, especially if you have the proper short season soybean variety.
* Wet conditions delays rye mowing/shredding and soybeans are tall and spindly -
-- mow/shred when you can, the soybeans will be OK.
* Dry conditions and the soybeans haven’t yet been planted -
-- hold up planting soybeans until you get some soil moisture to ensure good seed
placement. Hope rain comes. Mow/shed rye after pollen shed.
Provided by Dr. Paul Porter (pporter@umn.edu) at the Organic Crops Day – March 23, 2006
Rye as a Cover Crop Prior to Organic Soybeans – NW MN
The concept:
* Plant rye in fall after small grains or corn harvest
* No-till drill soybeans into standing rye the next spring.
* If necessary, mow/shred rye after soybeans have emerged.
Rye planting date and seeding rate:
* Late August – Early September for best fall biomass production @ 1.0 to 1.5 bu/ac
* Late September – October @ 1.5 to 2.5 bu/ac
Rye variety:
* Apparently doesn’t make much difference, but use good quality seed.
* Adapted varieties include Rymin, Prima, Homil21.
Rye planting method:
* Depending on field situation, can be no-tilled (if smooth field with minor weed issues)
* Drilling ensures best seed-to-soil contact, and thus early stand establishment
* Broadcasting and light harrowing also works (use slightly higher seeding rate)
Rye seeding depth:
* Rye is very forgiving. Plant deep (up to 2”) into moisture if necessary.
Fertility:
* If desired, manure can be applied prior to planting rye. The rye will ‘scavenge’ the nutrients.
Soybean planting date:
* After mid-May through mid- to late-June (if rain delayed).
* About the time you would normally plant soybean, or perhaps slightly later.
* Be patient, don’t “mud them in.”
Soybean seeding rate:
* 180,000 to 400,000 seed/ac – wide range, but read why below.
* Because of the rye & rye residue management, increase seeding rate slightly above normal.
* With appropriate varieties, the higher seeding rates (400,000 seeds/ac) can give great results.
(especially if late planted)
Soybean variety:
* Avoid small seeded varieties or varieties that are known to have poorer early vigor.
* Varieties that have worked well in the past include Atwood and Norpro.
Soybean planting method:
* No-till drill the soybeans at < 7.5” row width for best results.
(otherwise you give up yield and weed control because of slow canopy closure)
* Consider cross-seeding (planting in two-directions). This does two things: 1) gives a good
spatial distribution of the soybean plants for better canopy closure, and 2) can adequately
control/shred the rye by laying down the rye on the first pass and cutting it up on the
second pass.
Soybean seeding depth:
* Use a good no-till drill: be sure the seed gets in the ground.
* It is desirable to have adequate seed-furrow closure.
Rye mowing/shredding date:
* Wait until the rye has headed (which is somewhat temperature dependent).
* Best when pollen shed is or has occurred – waiting to pollen shed ensures less rye regrowth.
* Typically this will be during early- to mid-June, and the soybeans will be at
the first or second trifoliolate growth stage.
Rye mowing/shredding method:
* Shred rye as low to the ground as possible (to ensure less rye regrowth),
but above the height of the soybeans.
* Shred at heading, and ideally after pollen shed.
* Can use a flail mower, a sickle mower, or a rotary mower,
but avoid creating windrows with the rye residue.
* This step can be avoided if the soybean is cross-seeded in two directions.
Harvesting the soybean:
* Don’t be surprised that there will be rye seed in the soybean seed harvested.
(This rye can be cleaned out, and sold for feed.)
Do’s:
* Have the proper equipment for seeding the soybeans and mowing/shredding the rye.
* Timely field operations are essential.
* Plant rye early in the fall and at an adequate seeding rate for best weed control.
* Talk with producers who have done this successfully.
* Be patient (and adaptive).
Don’ts:
* Skimp on rye and soybean seed / quality.
* Mow/shred the rye too early.
* Think the system won’t work – it does work (see the ‘Do’s)
Problems / Issues:
* Poor rye stand obvious in early spring -
-- consider turning under the rye, but do this before rye stem elongation.
(if the rye is turned under, plant soybeans on wide rows and cultivate)
* Planted rye late in the fall and there is little early spring growth / biomass -
-- if weed pressure is light and rye stand is good, be patient, the rye will grow.
-- if weed pressure is heavy, consider turning under the rye before stem elongation.
* Wet conditions delays soybean planting until mid- to late-June -
-- plant anyway, especially if you have the proper short season soybean variety.
* Wet conditions delays rye mowing/shredding and soybeans are tall and spindly -
-- mow/shred when you can, the soybeans will be OK.
* Dry conditions and the soybeans haven’t yet been planted -
-- hold up planting soybeans until you get some soil moisture to ensure good seed
placement. Hope rain comes. Mow/shed rye after pollen shed.
Provided by Dr. Paul Porter (pporter@umn.edu) at the NPSAS Summer Tour, 2005

How To Grow Sprouts
Sprouts not only taste good, but they are also a great source of vitamins, fiber, protein, anti-oxidants, and enzymes. A sprout is produced when a seed starts growing into a vegetable. Sprouts can grow from the seeds of vegetables, from grains such as buckwheat, and from beans. While Mung beans are perhaps the most common source of sprouts, you can also obtain good results from lentils, soybeans and chickpeas just to name a few.

Sprouts can be grown almost anywhere and the best part is you only need a few basic supplies to get started. By following a few simple steps, you can receive a continual supply of nutritious sprouts.

While there are several commercial products available to cultivate sprouts, here are three of the easiest methods to help you get started.

Growing Sprouts in Flower Pots
1. Start with a clean clay or plastic flower pot. Make sure there is a hole in the bottom of the pot to ensure good drainage. Then place a piece of cheesecloth or muslin in the bottom of the pot over the hole so that the seeds/beans cannot fall out.
2. Next, soak the seeds or beans overnight and then put them in the pot. Remove any that are broken or damaged. Cover the plant pot with a dish.
3. Once a day, hold the pot under running water for a few minutes. This is to soak the seeds/beans thoroughly.
4. Once the sprouts begin to show, remove the dish and cover the pot with a piece of clear plastic wrap to let in the light. Place the sprouting pot near a window that allows daylight but is not in direct sunlight.
Growing the Sprouts in Trays
1. Soak the seeds or beans overnight. Remove any that are broken or damaged before you begin the sprouting process.
2. Select a low, flat dish (like a pie plate) or tray. You can purchase growing trays wherever planting supplies are sold.
3. Next, spread out a 2-inch layer of soil and then sprinkle the soaked seeds or beans on top of the soil.
4. Cover the seeds/beans with four layers of damp newspaper.
5. Cover the top of the tray with clear plastic wrap.
6. When the sprouts start to lift the plastic cover, (usually about three days) remove the newspaper.
7. Place the tray in a window so that the light can turn the sprouts green. You will need a space to place the sprouting tray that receives daylight but is not in direct sunlight.
8. Because the thin layer of soil dries out quickly, water twice each day.
9. After about 8-10 days, you will have sprouts tall enough to harvest.
Growing Sprouts in a Jar
1. Soak the seeds, grains, or beans in lukewarm water overnight in a wide-mouth glass jar. Remove any that are broken or damaged before you begin the sprouting process. (Sprouting increases the seed volume. 4-tablespoons will be sufficient for a quart size container.)
2. In the morning, pour off the water in the jar and rinse the seeds/beans thoroughly.
3. Place a piece of cheesecloth or muslin over the mouth of the jar. Use a rubber band to hold the material securely in place. This makes rinsing easier.
4. To keep the sprouts constantly damp, repeat the rinsing 2-3 times a day. Remember to drain any excess water because the sprouts should not stand in water.
5. Keep the jar away from the light for the first few days.
6. When the seeds/beans begin to sprout, (usually about the forth day) move the jar into the light to activate the chlorophyll and turn the sprouts green.
Harvesting and Storing the Sprouts

Newly germinated grain, seed, and sprouts, increase in food value in the very first period of growth. Grains should be harvested and eaten from when they are six days old until they are 4-5 inches tall. To harvest, just take your kitchen scissors and cut what you need.

Sprouts from beans, peas, etc., are ready earlier and can be eaten when they are 3-6 days old, depending on the type of sprout. For spouts grown in no soil or in seed trays, you can harvest the green "grass" when it starts to grow. Sprouts, from grain sown in jars, are ready sooner and are edible even before they turn green. Seeds sown in soil take a little longer.

If necessary, wash the sprouts thoroughly to remove the seed coat. Sprouts need to be stored in the refrigerator once they are ready to eat. Put the sprouts in tight sealing bags, and they will remain flavorful and crisp for one to two weeks. Rinsing the sprouts daily under cold water can extend their life.

Sprouts may be frozen by blanching them over steam for three minutes and then cooling them in ice water. Drain them and pack into freezer containers.

Some of the Kinds of Seeds/Beans You Can Sprout

The following list gives some of the popularly sprouted seeds/beans. It is not all inclusive as you can sprout almost any kind of seed. Remember that seeds soak up 2-3 times their dry volume in water and sprouts need at least six times the volume occupied by the seeds. So be sure that your container is large enough, and start with a minimal amount of seed in a container like a jar, until you determine the correct quantity that will grow to the sprout size you like, without being difficult to remove.

Your local garden shop or health food store will carry a line of seeds for sprouting. When purchasing seeds for sprouting, be certain that the seeds are intended for food and not for planting. This precaution is necessary because some seeds meant for planting have been treated with fungicides or insecticides to protect the young seedlings when planted in a field or garden.
• Alfalfa - should be soaked for 6-12 hours. The seeds can be planted in the pots or jars and also in the flats with soil. 1-part seed gives 10-parts sprouts in approximately 5-6 days. Sprouts can be eaten after 3 days. When the root is 1-2 inches long, it will begin to develop tiny green leaves. At this stage, it needs to be eaten immediately so the plant will not switch to photosynthesis that exhausts the stored food in the seed.
• Peas - when soaked in a glass jar, will grow sprouts in about 3 days. When the roots are 2-inches long, they are ready to eat. 1-part peas gives 2-parts sprouts.
• Lentils - can be grown in either a glass jar or a plant pot and need to be soaked for 12-hours. The sprouts are ready in 3-4 days. Lentil sprouts are ready to be eaten when the root is 1-inch long. 1-part lentils gives 6-parts sprouts.
• Barley, Oats, and Rye - should be soaked for 12-hours and then can either be grown as "grass" to harvest, or sprouts ready to eat after 3-4 days. The ideal length for eating is about 1/2-inch. 1-part seed gives 2-parts sprouts.
• Soybeans - can be grown in a glass jar or a pot. They need to be soaked for 12-hours and sprouts are usually ready after 3-5 days. They are ready to eat when the root is 2-inches long. 1-part beans gives 4-parts sprouts.
• Mung Beans - after soaking for 12-hours, these beans can be grown by any method. Mung beans are the most commonly grown sprouts and are usually ready to eat after 3-5 days. When the bright, white root grows from 1-2 inches long, they are ready to eat. 1-part beans gives 4-parts sprouts.
By growing your own sprouts, you will save yourself money because it is less expensive to buy sprout seeds and grow and harvest the sprouts yourself, than it is to buy the sprouts from a market. Sprouting at home takes only a few minutes a day, and can produce a good part of your daily requirements of the nutrients you need from fresh produce. The hassles are minor, the costs are low, and the freshness is wonderful.


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Stogz Biz
P.O. Box 178, Gorman, TX 76454
254-734-2435

http://www.foryourhealthinfo.com/howtogrowsprouts.html

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Author Message Pages: 1 2


Mark333
Junior Member

From: MM Philippines
Registered: 2006-07-24
Posts: 17
Good day,

Can we grow Soy in RP? Based on my limited research on the net, it seems possible. Yet I haven't seen any Pilipino farmer do so.

I ask this cause we have a piggery and soy constitutes a large part of our feeds' bill.

Or is the reason for not growing soy economic?

_______________________________________
If it's stupid and it works, it's not stupid. --Murphy's Law

I'm currently just a hobbyist and farming does not constitute a part of my family's income.

2006-07-25 17:31:29 E-mail


edtf
Member

Registered: 2006-07-14
Posts: 98
from a seminar I attended they say peanuts and soybeans are used to intercrop with coffee especially during the first two years. I saw the pictures of a coffee plantation in bukidnon with soybeans planted

2006-07-25 19:38:27 E-mail


Mark333
Junior Member

From: MM Philippines
Registered: 2006-07-24
Posts: 17
So it is possible with our climate! thanks, now i'll have to research if it is economically viable. Does the DOST have any publication on growing soy?

Soy contitutes more than half the cost of our feeds; which in turn has a huge impact on the price of pork. Last I heard, we import all if not most of our soy requirements.

Or am I wrong?

_______________________________________
If it's stupid and it works, it's not stupid. --Murphy's Law

I'm currently just a hobbyist and farming does not constitute a part of my family's income.

2006-07-26 17:04:53 E-mail


edtf
Member

Registered: 2006-07-14
Posts: 98

Mark333 wrote:

So it is possible with our climate! thanks, now i'll have to research if it is economically viable. Does the DOST have any publication on growing soy?

Soy contitutes more than half the cost of our feeds; which in turn has a huge impact on the price of pork. Last I heard, we import all if not most of our soy requirements.

Or am I wrong?




Could you please keep us informed of your findings. I'm interested in groing soy beans too.

2006-07-26 20:48:24 E-mail


edtf
Member

Registered: 2006-07-14
Posts: 98
Hi Mark333, Any news on growing soybeans??

2006-10-22 15:18:23 E-mail


jacedera
Junior Member

Registered: 2005-06-08
Posts: 18
Dear Mark333 and edtf:

As we are being required to record all incoming inquiries through this website, please indicate your full name, address, occupation/line of interest and contact information (tel nos., email). This information will help us get to know our clients and serve them better.

Thanks.

_______________________________________
JOSEFINA ACEDERA-ATIENZA
Commodity Specialist for Vegetables and Legumes
Crops Research Division
PCARRD-DOST, Los Baños, Laguna

2007-02-06 17:11:12

edtf
Member

Registered: 2006-07-14
Posts: 98
if you have a gladly e-mail to you my details just forward me your e-mail address. Any news regarding soybeans?

2007-02-06 21:52:13 E-mail


sabur
Junior Member

From: Tanauan City Batangas
Registered: 2005-10-06
Posts: 28
Ang soybeans ay "UTAW" sa tagalog tama ba? Kung ganon, may mga ganitong halaman sa Lipa City, Batangas. Wala pa lamang akong alam na nagtatanim nito ng malakihan (commercial).

Marami akong nakikitang bunga sa palengke. Nasa balat pa. Nilalaga ito at kinakain na parang mani ng mga taga-batangas. Ang iba naman ay sinasangag at ginagawang kape.

Balikan natin ang mga tanong ni Mark333.

Pwede bang itanim ang soybeans dito sa pilipinas?
OO... Pwede.

"...is the reason for not growing soy economic?"
Posible. Sa dami ng Feedmills sa batangas, kung maganda ang kita sa pagtatanim ng soybeans, malamang puno na ang probinsya ng soy farms. pero sa ngayon, mais pa rin ang karaniwang tanim at sinusupply sa feedmills. Siguro mas mura pa umimporta ng soy beans kumpara sa magproduce ang lokal na merkado.

2007-02-07 08:08:51 E-mail


agri_center
Loyal Member

Registered: 2005-03-28
Posts: 762
Sabur,

a little bit of info on soy...

the reason why our virgin coconut oil didnt penetrate the united states is because the US branded our vco to be trans fat, why did they brand it that way buy in fact it is not transfat but good oil... because of there soy industry!!! which is in fact the opposite of of vco... soy is transfat meaning bad for the heart, thats why americans are obese. now thats why nasira ang vco sa states. if you take in consideration vco oil could possibly be an expensive cooking oil.

another research on soy is that in experiments consuming soy will alter some hormonal activities in your body leading to a possible hormonal imbalance in gender. One good example is homosexuality. thats why homosexuality is rampant is because of what we eat, and soy is said to be one reasons for it besides carcinogen.

iam not being a killjoy here for mark and others but these were the research we made 5 years ago. also blame soy why our vco was brand damaged in other countries. i mean the americans were the reason for this to protect there soy industry. I think Bruce Fife mentioned this in his book i think.

_______________________________________
Philippine Agriculture Blog - www.blog.agriculture.ph
Philippine Agriculture Forum - www.agriculture.ph


2007-02-07 12:28:02 Website


ElmerB
Newbie

From: Isabela
Registered: 2007-03-13
Posts: 9
Hi,

Soya was grown in Isabela sometime mid 90's. I still recall growing this kind of crop during the months of december or january. The beans were sold to a cooperative to which my father was member. Sadly the cooperative was mismanaged and later on folded. The price then was about Php10 to Php14 per kilorgram of beans.

The crop should planted so as to harvest it during dry season, meaning walang ulan. kasi kapag nataong malapit na mag-ani at umulan, iitim ung beans which degraded the quality resulting to lower price.

This is first inoculated (don't know the name), of course with water para dumikit ung inoculant, in large container before sowing. The seeds will be covered with soil using a hand tractor with a board of wood in its harrow.

Don't know much how to care. During harvest time, its tree will be cut, sun dried in a pavement. Once the pod easily brakes, we use thresher to remove the beans from the pod. Again, the beans will be sun dried.

Regards,
Elmer

2007-03-14 11:30:41 E-mail


poultryboy
Member

From: Central Luzon
Registered: 2007-02-23
Posts: 90

agri_center wrote:

another research on soy is that in experiments consuming soy will alter some hormonal activities in your body leading to a possible hormonal imbalance in gender. One good example is homosexuality. thats why homosexuality is rampant is because of what we eat, and soy is said to be one reasons for it besides carcinogen.



maryosep, mahilig pa naman ako...

sa taho at tokwa...


_______________________________________
If there is what you call a cowboy, then I'm a poultryboy.

2007-06-04 18:33:53 E-mail


naghahanapbuhay
Junior Member

Registered: 2007-05-26
Posts: 23
poultryboy,

binibitin mo ang iyong pangungusap eh kasi sabi mo mahilig ikaw when i read it aba iba ang nasa isip ko noon ibinaba ko nakuha ko ang ibig mong sabihin.

totoo ba iyong sinasabi mo agri_center?

2007-06-07 10:18:20 E-mail


agri_center
Loyal Member

Registered: 2005-03-28
Posts: 762
hi,

yeah there was a study in the states that soy bean can alter the hormonal balance of your body, i doesnt mean everyone will change but for people who are immune to this.

_______________________________________
Philippine Agriculture Blog - www.blog.agriculture.ph
Philippine Agriculture Forum - www.agriculture.ph


2007-06-09 20:59:27 Website


ltx11
Newbie

Registered: 2008-02-04
Posts: 3
interesting topic
Mark333 wrote:

Good day,

Can we grow Soy in RP? Based on my limited research on the net, it seems possible. Yet I haven't seen any Pilipino farmer do so.

I ask this cause we have a piggery and soy constitutes a large part of our feeds' bill.

Or is the reason for not growing soy economic?



_______________________________________
download youtube
download youtube


2008-02-04 13:30:16 E-mail


gohand
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-07-20
Posts: 105
so what is the catch here! we stop producing soy sa pinas at mag angkat nalang tayo sa mga puti which benefited to us. prices of feeds are very high and the roi going down not a good mathematics for farming.
maitanong lang po kung anong season ba puede magtanim nang soy
salamat

2008-02-05 15:00:05

a white rabbit
Loyal Member

From: ..under deconstruction..
Registered: 2007-03-11
Posts: 226
..soy's a real bugger to grow, to get a decent crop it get's very technical, and really needs machinery, working on flat land, to be economic..

..oh and vast areas of soy rather screw the local enviroment, like it hasn't got enough problems ?

..the coconut's great, except it works against fat production, so what you get is lean, rather dry meat, but imo, it is a route to follow, and work out the feed ration that uses coconut flesh, maybe timed with a fat-producing ration, to get that marbled finish..

_______________________________________
..toodA irmAB moastly 'exper'mentin'

2008-02-08 21:23:34 E-mail


lv.reyes
Moderator

From: Philippines
Registered: 2007-07-31
Posts: 70
Dear Gohand:

Kapag dry season, mainam na itanim ang soybean simula Oktubre hanggang kalagitnaan ng Disyembre. Kapag wet season naman, karaniwan na itinatanim ang utaw mula Mayo hanggang Hunyo. Ito ay kagawian sa Mindanao kung saan ang utaw ay itinatanim ng 3 beses sa isang taon.

Sana ay nakatulong ang impormasyon na ito sa iyo. (Fina Acedera, Commodity Specialist, VeLeRo)

Lily

2008-02-11 11:40:48 E-mail


a white rabbit
Loyal Member

From: ..under deconstruction..
Registered: 2007-03-11
Posts: 226
..for a protein substitute for pigs that we can grow try cowpea or even mung

_______________________________________
..toodA irmAB moastly 'exper'mentin'

2008-02-12 22:29:00 E-mail


gohand
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-07-20
Posts: 105
salamat ms lily,
so, what is the idea site to plant soya flat, slightly slop, or slop. and another thing ms. lily what type of soil is the best for to soya grow? and wherre can we buy planting mats for soya. by the way ms. lily im from nothr mindanao and mostly farmers here are engage in rice and coco. can we inter crop soya in coco land?
more info of soya is very much apprecieted.
daghang salamat

2008-02-13 08:33:04

gohand
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-07-20
Posts: 105
by the way miss lily follow up lang po to clarify im not familiar with utaw what it is like or the visayan or english term of it.
salamat po

2008-02-13 08:36:46

a white rabbit
Loyal Member

From: ..under deconstruction..
Registered: 2007-03-11
Posts: 226

gohand wrote:

salamat ms lily,
so, what is the idea site to plant soya flat, slightly slop, or slop. and another thing ms. lily what type of soil is the best for to soya grow? and wherre can we buy planting mats for soya. by the way ms. lily im from nothr mindanao and mostly farmers here are engage in rice and coco. can we inter crop soya in coco land?
more info of soya is very much apprecieted.
daghang salamat




..no, it needs machinery so flat is best..

..no, it likes full sun so intercropping gives a reduced , and therefor, uneconomic yield..

_______________________________________
..toodA irmAB moastly 'exper'mentin'

2008-02-22 14:05:06 E-mail


lv.reyes
Moderator

From: Philippines
Registered: 2007-07-31
Posts: 70
Dear Gohand:

Utaw is the tagalong term for soybean. In Cebu, it is also known as ‘utaw’. It is the primary ingredient in the preparation of soymilk, taho and tofu or tokwa.

Ideally, soybean should be grown in flat areas. You may also grow it in sloping areas, but you have to consider soil conservation practices such as strip cropping, terracing, etc. Moreover, it is advisable not to do any land preparation to protect the top soil from erosion.

Soybean can be grown in any type of soil but it grows best in well-drained, fertile clay loam or sandy loam with high calcium content.

You can source your planting materials from the Claveria Experiment Station of the Department of Agriculture- Northern Mindanao Integrated Agricultural Research Center (NOMIARC) in Malaybalay, Bukidon. We suggest that you contact DA-Regional Field Unit No. 10 in Antonio Luna Street, Cagayan de Oro City at Telefax. Nos. +63(88) 856-2753 to 55 for information on seed availability.


Ideal intercrops for coconut are perennial crops such as pigeonpea or kadyos, patani, bataw, sitaw because they grow for a relatively longer period of time which allows them to accumulate enough photosynthates during their growing period. It is not financially rewarding to plant soybean under coconut because of depressed yields. If you are keen on planting soybean under coconut, it is advisable not to plow the soil. However, please take note that soybean yield is less than 1 ton per hectare for a coconut plantation of about 100 trees per hectare.

We hope you find these information useful.

Fina Acedera-Atienza
Commodity Specialist, VELERO

2008-02-28 17:17:06 E-mail


gohand
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-07-20
Posts: 105
thanks for the info ms lily, but i'll still visit the soy platation in bukidnon to be more practical and how the prepare there land before the plant.

2008-03-03 19:28:25

gohand
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-07-20
Posts: 105
thanks mr. whiterabbit for the info.

2008-03-03 19:30:45

pak-yaw
Loyal Member

Registered: 2007-04-19
Posts: 182

ElmerB wrote:

... The price then was about Php10 to Php14 per kilorgram of beans...




sa ngayon po magkano na a kilo of soybean seeds sa market?

maraming salamat po!

_______________________________________
Feed a pig and you'll have a hog!
No Goats, No Glory!

2008-05-08 10:07:00


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